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Wednesday, April 24, 2013

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -19

Historical Features of Garhwal, Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Mandhata Era of Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans 

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -19  

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-16                     
Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans -3           

                                          Bhishma Kukreti

                          Mandhata Era 

 Mandhata king was from Ikshwaku grace. His father was king Yuvnashva.
Mandhata was great king. Mandhata was king of central Indian regions, Eastern Punjab. Mandhata was vegetarian and stopped consumption of non vegetarian food in his kingdom. Dr Dabral suggests that Mandhata might have ruled over Uttarakhand too.
                  The Uttarakhandi kings as Pattabh and Subhikshraj appreciated the deeds of Mandhata in copper plates.  His successors could not protect the Suryavanshi regime.
                       Was Uttarakhand as Ushinagar?
                    Anu the son of Yayati got kingdom of Uttarakhand and Panchal regions and he extended it to Punjab and Northern Sindh. In Aiterey Brahman, Kaushtakiupnishad (Vedic literature) and Mahabharata, there is mention of Ushinagar. Dabral provides references of historians that Ushinagar was Uttarakhand.
The kings of Ushinagar were brave and strong. After the death of ushinagar king his sons divided the kingdom into five parts.
Kulindrajya: Mahabharata (vanparv, 130/21mentions about Kulindrajya and that was also part of today’s Uttarakhand. Kanningham supported the theory of Kalund area as Uttarakhand from the Kulind coins.

                                        Parushram era
 There are mentions of Sahstrarjun whose army also travelled in Uttarakhand (Bhagirathi bank where pines were there.).
Parushram fought Sahstrarjun and freed the evils.
Sagar- sagar was king of Ayodhya. Bhargava took care of Sagar in childhood. Sagar extended his rule to Bengal and Northern India.
Bhagirath- The epics state that Bhagirath was great grandson of Sagar. Bhagirath brought Ganga to the earth from heaven.
Vishwamitra- Vishwamitra was great king but took Sanyas. While practicing penance, Menka (nymph) attracted Vishwamitra.  Menka became pregnant but Vishwamitra did not accept being father of would be child.
Dilip- Dilip was one of successors of Bhagirath and his capital was Ayodhya. He ruled Uttrakhand and travelled Uttarakhand too.
Raghu-Raghu was son of Dilip.
Dashrath- Aj was son of Raghu and dashrath was son of Aj. Dashrath was great king.
Rama- Rama was one of four sons of Rama was great king of Ayodhya. Rama is lord Rama.
Seeta- Seeta was queen of Rama. Rama ordered Seeta to leave Ayodhya and Seeta wnet to Uttarakhand. It is said that Seeta lived in Sitansyun , Pauri Garhwal.
Shakuntala –Shakuntala was the daughter of Vishwamitra and Menka. After delivering child, Menka left her and went to heaven. Sage kanva took care of Shakuntala in Kanvashram (Kotdwara, Bhabhar, Pauri Garhwal).
Shakuntal married as Gandhrva style  with king Dushyant ,
King Bharat- Bharat was son of Shakuntala and Dusyant. He ruled India and the name Jamboodweep became Bharat in the name of Bharat.
Bhardwaj- Bhardwaj was great knowledgeable Brahmin. Bhardwaj sage had Ashram in Gangadwar (Haridwar). It is said that many races of Uttarakhandis are generation of Bhardwaj. Bhardwaj Gotra is famous gotra in uttarkahnd.

Historical Features of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans to be continued…4
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 20/4/2013
****Reference for Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans.
B.D. Pandey, Kumaon ka Itihas, pages 157-179
Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 2, pages 283-319
B.D. Chatopadhyaya , 2003, Studying Early India: Archeology, Texts and Historical  Issues
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -20
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…17

References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas, 
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi ,Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder  Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe