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Tuesday, April 30, 2013

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 25


 Water Reservoirs of Uttarakhand in Mahabharata Kulinda s or Kunindas Era 

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 25   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-22                     
Historical Aspects of Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) part-3

                                          Bhishma Kukreti

There are descriptions of lakes, Ponds, Warm water reservoirs, and Glaciers of Uttarakhand in Mahabharata at the time of Kulinda kingdom.
Lakes /Ponds- There are mentions of lakes in Mahabharata (Adiparva, Bhishma Parva, Sabha Parva) as Indradyumn, Chandrhrid, Bindusar and Mansarovar. Dr Dabral suggests that Gauri Kund is Mahabharata Indradyumn or Chandrahrid.
Lakes described in Manaskhand /Skandpuran: B.D. Pandey provides references of Manaskhand a part of Skandpuran. Manaskhand describes sixty Lakes or Ponds in Gargisthal, Kumaon . Gargi River used to flow near Gargisthal. Gargi is supposed to be today’s Gaula River. The lakes of Manaskhand are Bhimsarovar, Rishisarovar (Nainital), Nachkon sarovar (naukuchiya),Nal sarovar, Damyanti sarovar , Ramsarovar (Khurpatal) and Sitahrid.
Glaciers- There is no mentions as Himani or glaciers in Mahabharata but there are descriptions of Himalayan regions that satisfy the description of glacier regions.
There is no mention of Taptakund in Mahabharata.  

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 29/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -26
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…23
Historical Aspects of Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) to be continued…4 


References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora

Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
S  S.s Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society                         
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).  
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
This chapter contains notes on Water reservoirs/Lakes  of Garhwal and Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes s of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes of Tihri Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes of Pauri Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/  Lakes of Chamoli Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes   of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes  of Hardwar Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes   of Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes  of Dehradun Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes   of Udhamsingh Nagar Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes  of Pithoragarh Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes  of Bageshwar Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes  of Dwarhat  Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes  of Champawat Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/P Lakes  of Almora Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes  of Nainital Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era.