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Sunday, April 21, 2013

History of Kumaon - Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -16


Great Rigvedic Battle or Aryan Defeating Hill Tribes and History of Uttarakhand 


History of Kumaon - Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -16  

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-13
                      Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand -2     
                                                                                                                                              
                                      Bhishma Kukreti


                                       Das Rule 

 Divodas was Aryan king who battled with Dasa kings. Dasas mean the older race.
  In Rigveda non Aryan were dasa people. Dr Dabral with the help of Rigveda and other historians state that the various Dasa Kings rules must be extended not only to plains and hills of Punjab but in plains (Tarai) hills of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
  .
  Yakshu, Bhed, Shigru, Aj supported Bhed. Yakshu, Bhed, Shigru, Aj were the kings of eastern Satlaj area.
                                   Prosperous Dasa Land 
    The Hills even plains of central Himalayan regions were prosperous because of grasses, strong domestic animals of Dasa. There was availability of iron, gold, colour stones, alums and ample of medicinal herbs. The Dasa of Hills of Himalaya had monopoly over precious stones, metals and gold dust.
 There are enthusiastic mentions in Rigveda that Divodas (Aryan king) looted wealth as horse, metals, clothing, gold etc from Dasa kings of Hills and gifted to sages as Garg.
                               Looting from Hill and Tarai Grasslands by Aryans
  Kirata were the inhabitants of plains and hills of various regions of Himalaya (here Himachal and Uttarakhand). Aryans used to loot regularly from Kirat inhabitants. Looting by Aryans was life and death problems for Kiratas. 
                                        Looting Dasas Children by Aryans
  Rigveda reveals that Aryans used to loot whitish Kiratiyan and Khas children. Aryans used to make strategies for looting Kiratiyan and Khasiyan children. Aryans used to employ these young children as servants. Aryans (even sages to) started to keep Dasa as Keep or Rakhail. The Dasa children were converted for many works. Many selfish Kirats used to supply their own community children to Aryans. Aryans used to pray gods for Dasas and animals. It means for Aryans, Kiratas or Das were as good as animals. in the same.
                  Insulting Dasas
 Rigveda wrote various incidents of Aryans insulting Dasas of Himalyas or Dasas. There were orders from sages to Aryan communities to kill Das or strong caves men Dasas.
     The Aryans kings who used to kill caves men Dasas were appreciated in societies and in other countries.
              Great Battle in Rigveda between Himalayan Hill inhabitants and Aryans
   There is mention of great battle between Aryans and Dasas of Hills for centuries (Dabral, 1968).
The caves men Dasas of hills had caves, permanent fortes, and seasonal fortes. It was easy for hill Dasas to run away into hill forest as soon Aryan invaders used to attack them. The Dasas were well versed with black magic too. The Dasa women armies also took part in great battle.
       There were songs and stories about heroes of Dasas who fought bravely the great battle and even Mahabharata mentioned their stories.
Namuchi: Namuchi is one of the oldest and effective Dasa heroes of great battle. Namuchi was ruler of low hills of old Punjab.  Namuchi defeated the army chief of Manu. Manu killed Namuchi. Manu got food and wealth by defeating Namuchi.  Mahabharata mentions that Indra killed Namuchi be deceit. The land under Namuchi was around Sirmaur of Himachal.  
Vishisship: Vishiship was a hill Dasa king and with the help of Agni Manu killed him in great battle of centuries.
Vritra: Vrita was Hill Dasa king of Sirmaur near Haryana. Manu killed him.
Puruva the Aryan king killed hundreds of Dasa army men.
Kulitar: Kulitar was father of Shambar and there was peace between Aryans and Dasas at this period.
Shambar Pratap: Shambar Pratap was very brave Himalayan Dasas king and supposed to rule over Kangda.
Parvteey Sangh or Himalayan federation: Shambar united Dasas of Himalayan to fight with Aryans.
Aryan Sangh: Aryas also formed Aryan federation to fight with Hills Dasas.
Vadhrayashva: Vadhrayashva was a brave and famous Aryan kings who burnt the wealth and farms of hill Dasas.
Divodas: Divodas one of the brave and famous Aryan kings who killed hill king Shushna.
Shushna:  Shushna was brave hill king, was expert of war strategies and flank battling and the Aryan king Kuts defeated him.
Kuvay: Kuvay was main aid of Shushna. His wives were great worriers.

Vipru: Vipru was prosperous hill Dasa king because of animal wealth. With the help of Indra , Rijishwa Priya defeated Vipru.
Mrigay, Chamuri and Dhuni were great hill kings and Aryans brave men killed or defeated them.
 Vachin: It seems that Vachin was ruler of Himachal and Uttarakhand regions. He was also killed  by Aryan army.
                                       Results of Great Battle

  The dasa societies of Himachal and Uttarakhand lost much in great battle of centuries. After winning great battle, initially Aryans were organized but later on their unity was defused. After great battle Aryans entered into Himalayan regions.
                The Himalayan Asur Civilization

The Asurs (Himalayan inhabitants) were inhabitants of Himalaya.
They were having fortes and seasonal fortes.
The Asuras were brave, strong and knew war strategies (mayavi). They were phallus worshippers. Indra types of leaders could win over them.
Asura or inhabitants of hills were prosperous because of wealth of domestic animals, ores, weapons, dedicated to protect their lands.
 The Asura kings used to collect taxes, help to needy ones, were law abiding people.







***Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand to be continued in History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -17
     
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 20/4/2013

(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -17
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…14

References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001 , Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas, 
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi ,Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder  Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736 )
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Elst, Koenraad, 1999, Update on the Indian Aryan invasion debate, Delhi
Talgeri , Shrikant, 2000, The Rigveda: A Historical Analysis
Kumar Chellappan, 2011, New Research Debunks Aryan Invasion Theory, DNA, Chennai edition, 10the Decmevr 2011
M.S Ahluwalia, 1998 Social, cultural and Economic History of Himachal Pradesh
Notes on Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Pithauragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Dwarhat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Hardwar Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Dehradun Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Dehradun Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarkashi Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Tihri Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Rudraprayag Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Chamoli Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Pauri Garhwal , Uttarakhand to be continued…