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Monday, April 22, 2013

History of Kumaon,Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -17


Kumaon and Garhwal in Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans

History of Kumaon,Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -17   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-14                     
Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans -1   

[Notes on Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Pithauragarh Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Dwarhat Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Bageshwar Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Champawat Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Almora Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Nainital Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans]    
     
                                      Bhishma Kukreti

       Every literature provides full or partial historical accounts of its contemporary time and past.  Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans are stories of many historical people of ancient India. Mahabharata, Ramayana, Upanishad, Bhrahmins, Purans provide some ideas of places, civilization, culture. These literary works may not provide exact details but throw light on past of India.
 All historians of Uttarakhand as Rahul Sankrityayan, Pundit Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey, Shiv Prasad Dabral, Dinesh P. Saklani, D.D. Sharma, O.C. Handa, Ajay Rawat and other historians provide the examples of Mahabharata, Ramayana, Purans, Kedarkhand, and other old literature for explaining historical aspects of Uttarakhand. 

                       Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Puran

B.D Pandey sums up the references of epics, Purans etc  that many places , rivers and personalities of Kumaon as  Bhimtal, Devidhure, Viratnagari (Kurmanchal), Katyur Pargana of Kumaon, Baijnath, Kailas, Mansarovar (once, both were part of Kumaon), Pavan parvat (Seera Patti), Jauljeevi, Keral hills, Nakuri, Darun, Patan, Panchchuli, Ketuman (Girafat), Rathvahini (ramganga), Darukvan (Jagishwar), Dranagiri (birth place of river Bairti), Bansulisera, Gagas, Bhikiyasain, Lodhr Shikhar (Bhatkot), Pinakeesh, Kashya parvat (Kalmatiya), Badaditya(Katarmal), Katyanidevi (Syahidevi), Shali (Sunval), Seetavani (Bhabhar), Devki river (Dabka river), Gargi river (Gaula river ),  Kalmatiya (Kapar), Bageshwar Danpur,  Udaksrotra (Udaknauli ),  kuru (Kurmanchal) of Kumaon are mentioned in epics, Purans and other old Sanskrit literature and Pali literature as well.

Reference for Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans -1
B.D. Pandey, Kumaon ka Itihas, pages 179
Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 2, pages 283-319

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 20/4/2013

(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -18
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…15

References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas, 
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi ,Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder  Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe