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Sunday, April 28, 2013

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 21


Historical Features of Garhwal, Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Krishna Era of Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans -5

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 21   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-18                     
Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans -5           

                                          Bhishma Kukreti

                                 Uttarakhand in   Krishna Era or in Mahabharata era

Extension by Pandavas (Mahabharata) in Uttarakhand:  For amicability among Kauravas and Pandavas. Pandavas were given Indraprast region and Hastinapur kingdom was retained for Duryodhan . Pandvas expanded their kingdom. Bhim, Arjun, Nakul and Sahdev were given responsibilities to win over East, North, south and west respectively. Ghatotkuchh the son of giantess Hidamba and Bhim was given responsibility of expansion in Sri Lanka.
Arjun won the territories of Kulind, Kalkoot (Kalsi), and Tarai Bhabhar (plains of Garhwal, Kumaon).
पूर्व कुलिंदविषये वशे महीपतीन
धनंजयो महाबाहुर्नातितीव्रण कर्मण
आनर्तान कालकूटनश्च कुलिन्दाश्च विजित्य :  
(Mahabharata, Sabhaparv, 26/3-5)
 Arjun got gems gifts from Khash, Jhas, Nadyot, Praghas, Deerghvenik, Pashup, Kulind Tangan, Parantngan communities of Uttrakhand.
मेरु -मदरयोर्मध्ये शैलोदाम नदीम I
ये ते कीचकबेणुनां  छायाम रम्यामुपासते  II
खशांझषांश्च नद्योतान प्रघसान दीर्घवेणिकान
पशुपांश्च कुलिंदाश्च तंगाण़ान परतङ्गाणान
रत्ना न्यादय सर्वेभ्यो माल्यततो ययौ    (Mahabharata, Sabhaparva, 28/6 and other shlokas)
              Gifts from Uttarakhandi Regional kings to Yudhistar
    After winning many regions, King Yudhisthara (Pandavas eldest brother) became Chakravarti King and he organized a huge celebration party (Mahan yagya). Hundred of kings attended the huge celebration party of Pandavas in Idraprasth. All kings gifted precious materials to Yudhisthar.
       Sumukh the Kulind king of a region of Uttarakhand snet many precious gifts to Yudhishthar (mahabharat, Sabhaparva, 28/6).
The regional kings of Uttarakhand as Keechak venu, Khasha, Jyoha (jauhari), ekasan, Deerghvenik (long hair) gifted precious materials as gold dust to Yudhishthar (Mahabharata, sabhaparv, 52/5-7).
The Uttarakhandi community kings offered gifts as various colored Chanvar, Himalayan Honey, various types of Himalayan gems for durable garlands, Ganga water, and various medicinal herbs.
The Brahmins from Garhwal, Uttarakhand as Dhyaumya , his bother Deval and Agystya Muni were also in Mah yagya of Yudhistar (mahabharat, Sabhaparva  51/7).  


Historical Features of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans to be continued…6
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 20/4/2013
****Reference for Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans.
B.D. Pandey, Kumaon ka Itihas, pages 157-179
Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 2, pages 283-319
B.D. Chatopadhyaya , 2003, Studying Early India: Archeology, Texts and Historical  Issues
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -22
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…19

References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas, 
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Notes on Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Historical Aspects of Kali Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Historical Aspects of Dhyanirau in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Historical Aspects of Chaubhainsi Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Historical Aspects of Sor Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Historical Aspects of Seera/Sira Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; ; Historical Aspects of Askot Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; ; Historical Aspects of Faldakot Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; ; Historical Aspects of Dhaniyakot  Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; ; Historical Aspects of Chhakhata Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; ; Historical Aspects of Bhawali Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; ; Historical Aspects of Bhimtal Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; ; Historical Aspects of Kotoli Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Historical Aspects of Mahrudi  Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Historical Aspects of Tarai Bhabhar, Kota Bhabhar , Kota   Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Historical Aspects of Tarai Bhabhar, Kalsi Garhwal  in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans to be continued…