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Thursday, April 25, 2013

Dev Mangal Gatha: Folklore of Budha Kedar (Garhwal, Kumaon)


Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarkahnd-11
Religious, Spiritual and Mythological Folklore of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand – 11  


                                         Bhishma Kukreti 

 The Jagar (an all night vigil for worshipping a divine being) of Dev Mangla (Devmngal) is a famous Jagar of Budha Kedar region (confluence of Balganga and Dharamganga rivers in Tihri Garhwal). The Dev Mangal Jagar is about the tale of a prince who became the victim of conspiracy from his own brothers.
Some stanzas of Dev Mangal Jagar are as under 

कुमाऊं और गढ़वाल की लोक गाथाएँ -11 
देवमंगाल गाथा (बुढ़ो  केदार की लोकगाथा ) 
(
सन्दर्भ : डा कृष्णा नन्द जोशी (रुपहले शिखरों के सुनहरे स्वर),  एवं -कुसुम बुधवार व्हेरगॉड्स  ड्वेल )
साया सुरी  मायापुरी जमोनौ भयौ
कौदिया ईसर को पुत्र भयौ
मैणा माई माता भयौ
तीन भयाला जनम्या
अगला आगलो देव मंगल बिध्वु जन्मो
पूरब राज्य लियो
सात बैणी देवी जनम्यौ
ढोगी पाठ लियो
बागासेरी भौज्यु
देव्म्न्गाल देवरा
राती अधा रात में देवरया भौज्या बैछ
उमीधर राणी लै देवरया भौज्या दिखायौ
उमौंध राणी लै उदैण थें घात करयो
उदैण दिवता तै रेस आई गयो
भोळ विवाय गेछतीन भयाला ब्यूँजी गया
उदैण मुदैण सभा बैठा
देव मंगला खेल माल लाग्यौ
मुदैण  देवा बोली गयो
सतुर को छोरो कसिक मारुंलो
भयालो मारोख गोत्र हत्या लागलो
बागसरी मारुंलौ तिरया हत्या लागली 
                 The queen Maina had three sons and seven daughters. Dev Mangla was youngest one among all. Udain and Mudain were elder brothers of Dev Mangla. Udain became highly envious by feeling the affection of his wife Bageshwari for Dev Mangal. Udain became enemy of his wife Bageshwari.  Udain started thinking to kill both of them. However, Udain was in dual minds. Udain was afraid of woman killing sin (stree hatya Pap) for killing his wife and Gotr hatya sin by killing his own brother.

                 Therefore, both the elder brothers made strategies to kill Dev Mangal. Both told to Dev Mangal,” Let us visit Mal (Bhabhar) for collecting state taxes.”  Both the elder brothers were sure that Dev Mangal would be lost in dense Bhabhar forest and wild animals would kill him. They were in centre of dense forest. Dev Mangal was going for morning ablutions. He asked his brothers to put fresh green leaves on the path that he was not lost in the forest and he would not take long. The culprit brothers Udain and Mudain placed fresh leaves on the path that went to deeper and wilder forest and they took other rout.
 Dev Mangala reached safely Bhabhar with that path. Dev Mangala collected tax for twelve years.  His elder brothers also returned their place without collecting any tax. Dev Mangla bought precious materials for his sister in law (Bageshwari). Seeing precious materials from Dev Mangal, both the brother became more spiteful or resentful.
     In rainy season of Bhadaun three brothers went for hunting musk deer. They reached to Gori Ganga river bank. The river was full of water and its flow was very fearful. It was just to hug death by crossing Ggori Ganga at this period.
       Sarcastically, both the elder brothers told to Dev Mangal that he can cross them the Gori Ganga River. Dev Mangal worshipped the goddess Ganga and Gori Ganga became water less. All three brothers crossed the river.  To protect his elder brothers from cold, Dev Mangla prayed God and arranged stone as leaves.
 One day, due to tiredness, Dev Mangal was in sound sleep. Udain and Mudain called him repeatedly but Dev Mangal did not awake. They thought he was dead and became happy. However, Dev Mangal awoke later on.
  Finally, the elder brothers put a seed into water jug that was called sinful seed. By taking such water, the person was used to be out casted. Dev Mangal took that water and his elder brothers asked him to be out casted. Both the brothers left him in deep forest and ran away. Frustratingly, Dev Mangal cursed them and Udain- Mudain became stones.
 When Dev Mangal forwarded his journey, he met with oppressing seven brothers Chyarmi and their fourteen servants.  Dev Mangal went to the court priest of Chyarmiyon at Jagannath temple. Dev took sansyi dress from priest. Chyarmi saw the sanaysi and said, “Namo Narayan”. Jogi or sanyasi cursed them. Dev Mangal in the dress of Sanyasi killed each cruel Chyarmi and freed the subject from cruel rule of Charmi.
 Dev Mangal took Sanyas and made the priest of Jangannath temple first disciple. In later stage, Dev Mangal got the status of deity in Najarkot (Budha Kedar). All Uttarakhandis worship Dev Mangal and perform Ghadela and sing the Jagar of Dev Mangal.  
Curtsey and references:
Dr. Krishna Nand Joshi, Kumaon ka Lok Sahity
 Dr Trilochan Pandey, Kumaoni Bhasha aur Uska Sahity
Dr Siva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Lok Nrityageet 
Dr Govind Chatak, Garhwali Lokgathayen
Dr. Govind Chatak, Kumaoni Lokgathayen
Dr Urbi Datt Upadhyaya, Kumaon ki Lokgathaon ka Sahityik Adhyan
Dr. Prayag Joshi, Kumaon Garhwal ki Lokgathaon ka Vivechnatmak Adhyayan
Dr Dinesh Chandra Baluni, Uttarakhand ki Lokgathayen
Dr Jagdish (Jaggu) Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar, (Ravain) 
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Dhunyal
Shambhu Prasad Bahuguna, Virat Hriday
Kusum Budhwar, 2010, Where Gods Dwell: Central Himalayan Folktales and Legends 

Copyright (Interpretation) @ Bhishma Kukreti, 25/4/2013
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarakhand to be continued…12
Religious, Spiritual and Mythological Folklore of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued…12