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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Tuesday, April 30, 2013

Jagdev Panwar Jagar: The Chivalry Folklore about Sacrificing Life for Honor

Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarkahnd-16
 Chivalry, Gallantry, Graciousness Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand – 1  

                                         Bhishma Kukreti 

   The Uttarakhand cultural historian Dinesh Baluni states that the first Panwar king of Panwar dynasty was Kankpal who was crowned for Chandpur Gadhi in 888AD. He states that the folk story of Jagdev is before Kanakpal.
          However, this author found three other folk stories related to name Jagdev Panwar of Dhara and surprisingly, there are similarities among all folk stories of Jagdev Pnawar –that is Garhwali version folklore of Jagdev, Akhnoor or Dhara Nagri folklore of Jagdev Panwar, Dhara Nagri folk sayings by Bhat and Pahasnu (Rampur Pargana of Saharanpur district) folklore of Jagdev Panwar. There is no historical proof available for all four 9including Garhwali) folklore about Jagdev Panwar.
                       Jagdev Panwar who founded Panwar dynasty in Akhnoor kingdom

King Udayaditya (Vikramiditya clan) of Malwa, Dhar had two wives. The valerian Jagdev was son from Solankin queen. The other queen Baghelin did not want that Jagdev become crown prince and she arranged conspiracy. Jagdev and his wife had to leave the court.  Jaisingh was the competent general of Udayditya.
  Jagdev did deep mediation for Jagdamba (Mahakali). Goddess Kankali asked the head of Jagdev from his wife. The head of Jagdev was given to Kankali. Kankali took head to heaven and showed the sacrifice to devtas. Later, Kalinka joined head with Jagdev body made Jagdev live.
  Later on due to dispute Jagdev migrated to Himalayan belt at Akhnoor, Jammu and Kashmir.  Jagdev Panwar established his kingdom at Virat Nagri (2 -3 kilometers away from Akhnoor) in 1096 AD. Jagdev was devotee of Amba goddess and after the death of Jagdev, the name of Wrat Nagri was changed as Ambaraian. 

                              Folklore sung by Bhats of Dhara Nagri 

There is another saying that Jagdev Panwar cut his head for seven times and offered to goddess on Sunday 1095AD.The said Dhar folklore by Bhat says-
इग्यारा सौ इकाणवे चैत  सुदी रविवार।
जगदेव शीस समापियो धारा नगर पवार।। 
There is mention of Jaisingh Chaukyal who married his daughter to Jagdev (fromwikimapedia.org>india> Madhya Pradesh

                           Khuber Folklore of Pahasnu, Saharanpur about Jagdev Panwar 

  G.G. Raheja tells the folk stories of Jagdev Panwar from village Pahansu of Saharanpur district. The king Jaisal was greatest king and King Jagdev Panwar was smaller king. Every day, the wife of Bhat used to come for dan (donation or gift) to Jaisal court. One day she came when Jagdev Panwar was also sitting in court of Jagdev. Bhat woman told to Jaisal that Jagdev Panwar was greater donor (dan data). Jaisal told to Bhat woman and asked to go Jagdev Panwar house to collect donation (dan) and he (Jaisal) would offer ten times more donation (dan) than Jagdev Panwar.
  Jagdev Panwar told the story of court to his wife. The wife was worried as Jagdev Panwar was smaller king and smaller by wealth too. Jagdev told his wife that Panwar fellow would never be defeated in ‘dan’(donation) too.
In morning, Jagdev took bath and became ready to offer donation (dan) to Bhat woman. When Bhat woman came, Jagdev Panwar cut his head and offered his head to Bhat woman as ‘dan’(donation). Bhat woman went to jaisal court and when Jaisal king came to know that Jagdev offered his head as ‘dan’, the king Jaisal accepted defeat.
The Bhat woman returned to house of Jagdev Panwar with his head and she returned back the head of Jagdev Panwar to his wife. The queen then joined the head of Jagdev Panwar to his body and prayed Go Bhagwan, “Give my husband the gift of life.” Bhagwan made Jagdev Panwar live.

                   Garhwali – Kumaoni version of Jagdev Panwar Folklore
  The Garhwali Jagar version of Jagdev Jagar starts from the conference of deities. The portion of Jagdev Panwar Jagar is as follows-

         कुमाऊं और गढ़वाल की लोक गाथाएँ -16   जगदेव पंवार जागर : भडौ , कटकू या पांवड़ा
सन्दर्भडा हरी दत्त भट्ट 'शैलेश'गढ़वाली भाषा और उसका साहित्य )  
पंच देवों  की सभा लगीं छई
शिवजी ध्यान मा छा,देवी छई पार्वती
सभा का मुकुट तिरलोकी नारैण
तब इन बैन बोल्दा
क्वी दुनिया मा इनो वीर भी होलो
जो शीश काटिक दान देलो
जैन शीश को दान दीण
वैन गढ़वाल को राज लीण
वरवी बैठीं छई चंचु भा की बेटी कैड़ी कंकाली
तब बोल्दा भगवान हे कैड़ी कंकाली
दुनिया को तौल दु , पृथ्वी भाऊ
क्वी दुनिया मा शीश काटीक दान भी देलो
तू रंदी कंकाली मृत्यु मंडल मा
मै ल्यूलो भगवान पृथ्वी को भेद
तब कैड़ी कंकाली मृत्यु मंडल औंदी
वै मलासीगढ़ में रंद छयो वींको बाबा चंचु  भाट  
कैड़ी कंकाली छै मलासीगढ़ की प्यारी
मन की मयाळी छै वा कैड़ी कंकाली
xxx            xxx 
तब चौहानी राणी  करदी वींको
दियुं दान नी लियेंदु , थुक्युं थूक नि चटेंदू
तब देवतोंन वीं धड पर ही हैंकु सर उपजाए
सेता -पिंगला चौंळ मारिन
जीतो होई गये जगदेव पंवार
देवतौन तब वे गढ़वाल को राज दिने
वचन चले दिल राई , जयसिंह सभाई
वचन रहा जगदेव पंवार का जिसने
सर काट कंकाली को दिया
गढ़वाल देश को राज लिया   
           There is deity conference and was attended by lord Shiva and goddess Parvati. In the deity conference, Narayan announced that who would offer he would be given Garhwal kingdom.
          Goddess Kalika devi  (Kankali) became responsible to find such person who would offer his own head. In the form of beggar Kalika went to Dhara Nagari where two brothers Jaidev and Jagdev lived.
          Seeing the beggar Kalika, Jaidev went away for hunting as he was very miser. Second brother Jagdev invited Kalika for ‘dan’. Jagdev asked his wives about what they were offering to beggar. All queens except Chauhani queen became ready to offer food and money. Chauhani was ready to offer her head.
              Chauhani queen became ready in male dress and stood before her husband Jagdev Panwar and told him that she would sacrifice her life. Jagdev Panwar became enthusiastic. Jagdev Panwar took his golden sword and cut his head.
   Kalika put the head of Jagdev Panwar in her Kamandal (jug) and went to deity land (heaven). Looking at the head of jagdev, Narayan became pleased. All deities came to Dhara Nagari with the head of Jagdev. Deities joined the head of Jagdev. Chauhani queen refused to take back the donated head. Deities created new head and joined it to body. Deities performed Mantra ritual and Jagdev became alive. Deities offered Jagdev the land of Garhwal for ruling. Jagdev Panwar ruled Garhwal happily.  
Two following references are also important for this write up and that are-
1-Gloria Goodwin Raheja, 1988, The Poison in the Gift: Ritual, Prestation and the Dominant caste in North Indian Village, The University of Chicago Press (pages 21-24)

Copyright (Interpretation) @ Bhishma Kukreti, 30/4/2013
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarakhand to be continued…16

Chivalry, Gallantry, gracious Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued…2   
Curtsey and references:
Dr. Krishna Nand Joshi, Kumaon ka Lok Sahitya (Folklore texts of Kumaon)
 Dr Trilochan Pandey, Kumaoni Bhasha aur Uska Sahity(Folklore literature of Kumaon )
Dr Siva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Lok Nrityageet  (Folk Songs and dances of Garhwal )
Dr Govind Chatak, Garhwali Lokgathayen (Folklore of Garhwali)
Dr. Govind Chatak, Kumaoni Lokgathayen (Folklore of Kumaoni)
Dr Urbi Datt Upadhyaya, Kumaon ki Lokgathaon ka Sahityik Adhyayan (Literary review of Folklore of Kumaon)
Dr. Prayag Joshi, Kumaon Garhwal ki Lokgathaon ka Vivechnatmak Adhyayan (Critical Review of Folklore of Kumaon and Garhwal)
Dr Dinesh Chandra Baluni, Uttarakhand ki Lokgathayen (Folklore of Uttarakhand)
Dr Jagdish (Jaggu) Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar, (Partially Folklore of Ravain) 
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Dhunyal (Folklore and Folk Songs of Garhwal)
Shambhu Prasad Bahuguna, Virat Hriday
Kusum Budhwar, 2010, Where Gods Dwell: Central Himalayan Folktales and Legends 
C.M. Agarwal , Golu Devta, 1992, The God of Justice of Kumaon Himalayas
N.D .Paliwal, 1987, Kumaoni Lok Geet
E.S. Oakley and Tara Datt Gairola 1935, Himalayan Folklore
M.R.Anand, 2009, Understanding the Socio Cultural experiences of Pahadi folks: Jagar Gathas of Kumaon and Garhwal
Dr. Pradeep Saklani,2008, Ethnoarcheology of Yamuna Valley
Kumaon: Kala, Shilp,aur Sanskriti         www.himvan.com/webpages/dana.htm
Anjali Kapila (2004), Traditional health Practices of Kumaoni women