Rivers of Uttarakhand in Kulinda/Kuninda Era
History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 24
Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-25
Historical Aspects of Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) part-2
Most of Historians accepted the existence of Kulinda or Kuninda kingdom in Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) due to finding of coins of Buddhist era. However, most of historians had to depend on epic as Mahabharata for the historical, geographical and cultural aspects of Kuninda or Kulindas kingdom. The historians also refer Bhav Bhavna (Jain literature), Kedarkhand , Mansakhand and kalidas’s literature.
There are mentions of rivers of Garhwal and Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Adiparva, Vanparva, Dronaparva, Bhishma Parva, Sabhaparva, and Aunshashanparva of epic Mahabharata and in Bhav Bhavna (Jain literature), Kedarkhand , Manaskhand and Kalidas’s literature.
Mahabharata mentions Yamuna as auspicious River and one of seven rivers part of Ganges. Mahabharata cited the Rivers as Tamsa,Jala, Upjala as associated to Yamuna River.
There are mentions of associated Rivers of Ganga in Mahabharata. The associated Rivers of Ganga of Mahabharata are Janhavi, Bhagirathi, Mandakini, and Alaknanda. Ganga, Yamuna, Sarswati, Rathstha (Today’s Ramganga), Saryu, Gomti, and Gandki were seven associated auspicious rivers of Ganga. There is mention of Chandrahrid river ton which Bhagirathi met. However, till date historians could not recognize Chandrahrid in today’s context.
There are mentions of rivers as Ashwratha, Indratoya. Nanda and appar Nanda flew near Hemkut. Shailoda River flew in between Meru and Mandar hills. Perhaps Shailoda is today’s Dhauliganga. There were jungles of bamboo family. Rivers as Shailoda were very cold and deep.
There is complete description in Mahabharata about Malini River near Kanwashram.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 29/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -25
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…22
Historical Aspects of Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) to be continued…3
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad, India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010 History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360)
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
S S.s Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal Himalaya (pages-391-398).
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
This chapter contains notes on Rivers of Garhwal and Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Tihri Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Pauri Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Chamoli Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Hardwar Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Dehradun Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Udhamsingh Nagar Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Pithoragarh Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Bageshwar Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Dwarhat Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Champawat Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Almora Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Nainital Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era.