British Administration in Garhwal -117
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -134
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -971
The third phase forest settlement was from 1893-1947 (Pandey).
British officers as Sir John Hovet, Sir John Campbell, Sir Buk took interest in Uttarakhand forests and announced rules from Nainital that the unmeasured land, barren land snow borne land, rivers, rivulets, pond-lakes, hills would be called government properties. It is said that the above officers were really the hunters and they did not made rules for forest protection but for protecting hunting jungles.
ABC classification of Forests
In between officials classified forests.
There was no nominal right for citizens on A class forest. There was a little bit rights of citizens on B class forests. The citizens have rights on C class forests or open forests that was nearby villages.
Government declared Devdaru, pines, , sal, kail, Shisham, Tun and Khair trees as Rserved or Royal trees and even the citizens could not cut them from their own land without government permission.
Government made many restrictions on citizens for using forest and forest produces. Government banned on fishing, hunting without permission. Government officials fined many citizens and many were put in prison. Forest guards (patrol) gave pains to the citizens.
There was forest settlement from 1911 to 1915. Government ignored all measurement for last eighty years. Government took control over all forests and citizens were deprived even from plucking leaves. Citizens showed their dissatisfaction, but government ignored citizen demand. In many cases, the agriculture land came under forest. Government paid nominal compensation.
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History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -972
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 287-312
2- Badridatt Pandey, Kumaun ka Itihas , page 468-69
History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;