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Friday, July 1, 2016

Birth and speedy Development of new Corruption in British Garhwal

History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -2
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -838
                              By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
             There were corrupt and oppressive officials in Gurkha and Garhwali rule too.  Frazer advised or instructed Baldock to keep the administration as it was in old time and not to change suddenly (Saxena). Baldock was busy in tour and entertainment there. Therefore, the corrupt officials and prostitute agents became powerful in the administration. People had to offer bribes to prostitute agents and officials for getting actions for their applications.  If the English or high cadre officer signed on application for an action, the peon or record keeper never forwarded the  applications without taking bribe from the applicants. The lower cadre employees used to take commission on the purchase by High cadre officials. Many times, those officials used to free a criminal and used to penalize the innocent ones as officials used to get bribe from criminals.

                  Police Administration under Major Baldock in British Garhwal
,
            British officers handed over the responsibility for law and order to 500 Santari/police men under Baldock. A few policemen were Gorkha from Nasari battalion or those soldiers who changed the side when knew that Gurkha kingdom was coming to an end. Those soldiers were placed at regional head quarters of Garhwal and a few were under Superintendent of Shrinagar.
       The situation did not change even in British rule. The officers used to announce decision without any analysis and research.
                             Trembled Judiciary  
        Maularam illustrated a shaky judiciary system under Baldock. At every step, officers used to take bribe and in that case normal justice was lacking in Shrinagar and other places in British Garhwal. Witnesses were sold or purchased.
(Reference – Dabral, Maularam, Sitaram , Maheshwar Dayal, Saksena) )
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 1/7/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -839
*** History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun, (Pauri , Rudraprayag, and Chamoli) Garhwal (1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference           
                 
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
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Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
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John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
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Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
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XXX
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;