ब्वारी : महाकवि कन्हैया लाल डंडरियाल रचित कालजयी हास्य कविता
Critical and Chronological History of Modern Garhwali (Asian) Poetry –-60
Literature Historian: Bhishma Kukreti
Humor is recorded in many old texts of all civilizations available with us as in Greek (Ruch, 2007), Egyptian old manuscripts, old Sanskrit literature .In a Sanskrit classic, Natty Shashtra, Bharat explains to use of humor in poetry and drama. Ritter (1974) detailed psychology of humor according to age and in context of Europe and stated that since 1565, humors were used to described unstable behavior or mood, negative or positive mood states as bad humor or good humor .. Roeckelein (2002) and Ruch (2004) stated that by beginning of 17th century in Europe, good humor or positive mood making humor referred to temperament/disposition trait or habit.
The research scholar of University of Fribourg, Andrea C. Samson describes that humor has two system. First is from aesthetic view where humour designates only one element of comic and is distinguished fro other wit or ridicule. Notable, in this theory the base of humor is sympathy and is benevolent.
According to Andrea, the other system describes humor is used as Umbrella term for all funny happening s, events or phenomenon. Usually, currently humor is recognized as
1- Playful recognition, enjoyment or and creation of incongruity
2-A composed, tranquil view on adversity and creates good mood or is positive.
3- Capability of others smiling and or laughing
Ruch (2004, 2007 ) stated that here, humor is treated as neutral term and is not restricted to positive meaning.
Suls (1972) assumed that there are two stages in humor process that first the incongruity or absurdity is detected and then and then it has to be resolved which is similar to a problem solving solution. While, psychoanalysts as Attardo , Koulson, Kutas assumed three stages of humor process- 1- Encoding 2-Detection of Absurdness or incongruity 3-Incongruity resolution (problem solution) . It is definite that each stage may overlap on each other.
From non sense humor point of view, McGhee (19900 assumed three types of nonsense humor
1-The punch line may not provide resolution at all
2- Provide a partial resolution
3-Actuality creates new absurdness
McGhee assumes that in nonsense humor, the resolving information creates the impression of making sense out of the absurdness actually without doing so.
Rothbart and Pien (1977) suggested to differentiate between possible and impossible incongruities and in between complete and incomplete resolution
A-Impossible absurdness or incongruity are the elements which are unexpected , not guessed and are also impossible given one’s present knowledge of the world or within the audience’s current society
B- Possible Absurdness elements are which are unexpected but there is complete or mere possibility of there being here or somewhere.
C-Complete Resolution is the initial absurdness or incongruity follows completely from resolution information or informing medium
D- Incomplete Resolution is the initial absurdness or incongruity follows from resolution information in the same manner but is not made completely meaningful due to the reason that the real situation is impossible
Due to lack of valid psychological researches , there are many general theories of humour too as the theory of Semantic Script Theory of Humor by Raskin and General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH) by Attardo and Raskin . from literature point of view the vocabulary of GTVH is very interesting as
1- Language (LA): According to them , the language is verbalization of the text word, choice, placement of functional elements etc. The example of LA are punning and position of punching line
2-Nnarrative Strategy : The narrative strategy is narrative structure of humour or genre . The examples of Narrative strategy are narration, riddles, question –answers dialogues.
3- Situation: The situation in GTVH is the situational embedding jokes, characters, activities, objects, setting etc. The examples are Doctor’s jokes and jokes about blondes .
4- Target : The Target in GTVH is that often humor aims at (social) stereotype as ‘butts and example is Austrians and Scott etc
5- Script Opposition: From the view of GTVH, the script opposition is the central requirement for the generation of humorous effect due to opposition as good verses bad or possible verses impossible .
6- Logical mechanism: The logical mechanism from the GTVH angle is cognitive operation needed to achieve resolution (partial) by incongruity or absurdness as - juxtaposition , false analogy, figure ground reversal.
When the reader will study the following poem of Great Poet (Mahakavi) Kanhayalal
Dandriyal, they will find that the blending of Hindi phrases with Garhwali phrases, the language ( Words used in this poem) , the narration, the specific words, happenings against the expectation or against customary wisdom , the wholeness of poem , script, and logical mechanism created by various figures of speeches make this poem a great Poem of Asian Literature . The great poet also did experiment with form .
कवि कन्हैया लाल डंडरियाल रचित कालजयी हास्य कविता )
भाई जी ने मैखुणि कि ब्वारी क्या खुज्याई है
अफ्फु को त भात , मैकू झंगोरा पकाती है
मैंने माँगा मांड उसने आंखी भ्
की मैंने कम्पलेंट भाई जी के पास में
भौत गन्ग्जाये हम अपणी सफाई में
चचराने लगी वह मैंने खा शट अप
खैंची मैंने भिटुलि , उसने चुप्पा झम्मडाई है
चढी तब नडाक मुझे , बौंळी चट बिटाई है
बर्बराई चट , वा , उसने मुछ्याळी उठाई है
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai; 2016
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