Administration of G. W. Trail in Garhwal and Kumaon -11
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -12
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -850
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
The heirs of Khanduri Brothers –Rama and Dharni presented five ‘Sanad’ (Government ordering) offered by Nepal court before Trail (1 and 2).
‘Sanad’ number 1 and 2 were from Pradyumanshah offered to Rama and Dharni Khanduri for the positions of Daftari.
Trail wrote in a letter on 2nd April,” Garhwal King killed Rama and Dharni for the crime of them having conspiracy with Gurkha court for killing him (Garhwal King) “(2).
However, the writings of Maularam in ‘Ganika –Natak’ are clear that the younger brother Parakram Shah Brother of Garhwal King killed Rama and Dharni Khanduri. (1). There were cordial relation between Khanduri brothers and Gurkha court as they were court Daftari. At the initial administration period, Gurkha administrators wrote in Sanad 1,” Let Gajadhar and Krishnanand the sons of Rama and Dharni and their brother Harakpati the annual Jagir for Gorkha Rs 6000/- for working as Daftari. Jagir for Rs 6000/- means Jagirdar had to collect more amount from villagers for earning. There was delay in administrating the Nepal court order. In 1810, Nepal court sent a ‘Sanad’ to Kaji Bahadur Bhandari and Dashrath Khatri where the annual amount was Go.Rs 4000-. After request of Khanduri brothers, in 1812, Bakshi Dashrath Khatri sent a ‘Sanad’ for new Jagir with his stamp for Go.Rs1500/- annually. It was clearly written in ‘Sanad’ -2 that this ‘Sanad’ is being offered by ordered from Nepal Court.(2)
When Khanduri brothers reached to the region and inspected the reality and found that the amount declared in ‘Sanad’ was not possible to collect from villagers of that region. Dashrath Khatri offered an amended ‘Sanad’ and offered 18 more villages whose tax was estimated for Rs 406.25. That ‘Sanad’ was also of 1812. There was name of Krishnanad but it was clearly mentioned that the amended ‘Sanad’ was being offered for correcting the low earning Jagir in old ‘Sanad’ Apart from those Jagirs of two ‘Sanad’, from 1814 (?), Khanduri brothers were also getting tax from a few villages of Barasyun region. Dashrath Khatri stopped the Barasyun Jagir for Khanduri brothers in 1813. Later on, the Gurkha commander Sardar Bhairosingh offered a new ‘Sanad’ (number 5) to Khanduri brothers for getting back Barasyun Jagir. Bhairosingh wrote that he was offering ‘Sanad’ as per Nepal court order. The order from Nepal Court was ‘‘. He and his soldiers should not interfere in Jagir.”
Trail accepted the Jagir for heirs of Khanduri brothers for Rs 1500/- annually. Trail rejected the ‘Sanad’ offered by Dashrath Khatri and Bhairon Singh arguing that Nepal court used to provide red stamp on plain paper to their administrators and those papers were for emergency uses for corresponding with neighboring countries. (2)
Trail also wrote to Gardner that Krishna Nand and Harakpati went to Delhi with Frazer from Shrinagar. From Delhi, they returned with King Sudarshan Shah to Tehri. Both were working with Tehri King. Later on, Gajdhar and Krishna Datt reached to Tehri. Krishna Nand was working with him (Trail) in his office as Hindi Navish for monthly salary for Rs 20/-
Trail also wrote to Gardner that it was important positions of Daftari. Government should offer Jagir to Daftaris. However, Trail suggested that Government should offer salary equal amount of Jagir and not the Jagir.
Therefore, Company Government cancelled the ‘Sanad’ for Khanduris and decided monthly allowances for Rs 32/- per month to Gajadhar, Krishnadatt, Krishnanad and Harakpati. Company secretary Johan Adam sent a letter for accepting the suggestion by Trail on 4th May 1816. In Company regime, the position of Daftari was called ‘Kanoongo’. Administration fixed four positions for ‘Kanoongo’ and Khanduris were offered the positions. British administration appointed Khanduris only for the position of Kanoongo for many years. In Kumaon too, Joshis of Jhinjhad and Danya and Chaudhari were offered Kanoongo positions for many years.
The letter of Betan of 29th April 1837, showed that there was no assurance to Khanduris that Kanoongo positions were reserved for Khanduris only in Garhwal region. Initially, Administration offered post to Khnduris because of their experiences and later on Khanduris took it guaranteed. (3 and 1)
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, email@example.com 13/7/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -851
*** History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun, (Pauri , Rudraprayag, and Chamoli) Garhwal (1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page 137-139
2- English Pre Mutiny Records, Kumaon 1816, Part -2, Vol.8
3- English Pre Mutiny Records, Kumaon 1837-39, Vol.1
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;