Administration of G. W. Trail in Garhwal and Kumaon -9
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -10
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -848
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
Apart from land tax on people of Garhwal, there were other various taxes on the citizens in Trail period.
The miscellaneous tax in Garhwal under Gurkha rule in 1811 was as under (Atkinson)
Tax /Kar -----------------------------
Salami or presentation ------------------ 1147
Mijhari /Dom Kar of Leather Tanning on Scheduled Caste – 454
Tandkar , Weaving tax --------------------- 1283
Soniya fagun /festivals tax--------------------1495
Tambakhan, Copper mines/mint--------------2401
Addhani-Daftari , record keeping tax ------------1495
Sayar , Import –Export duty ---------------------- 10900
Kuirsal / catechu tax--------------------------- 170
Kath-Bans , tax on bamboo and wood ------------ 600
Chungi , miscellaneous tax------------------ 200
Asmani-Farmani , Punishment tax ------------ 2000
There were other taxes as taxes on hemp and hemp produces, opium, soaps, tobacco. There were taxes on mint, river crossing , slavery sales and purchase etc.
Trail administration decided for banning on slavery and kept the tax structure the same as of Gurkha rule barring slavery tax, the order was passed on 2nd June 1815. However, later on British administration abolished Asmani and Farmani tax too. Trail stopped ‘Dom kar’ or tax on leather tanning (Atkinson page 289).
Tax on Food Articles
There is interesting matter on taxation on food articles in Gurkha regime time. There was tax on export and import on food articles. However, officials of Gurkha administration exempted tax on a few people for food article taxes. The tax exemption resulted in loss for exchequer and complexities for Tax collector in Octori post. There were a few Brahmins those were exempted for tax on food articles import and exports. The Gurkha officials exempted half the amount for certain Brahmins (2). Trail wrote that he was against exemption of import and export taxes on food articles for a few Brahmins and he informed that he was stopping exemption. (3).
There was pleas from the priests of Badrinath, Kedarnath and Kamleshwar temples that they should be exempted from food import taxes.
However, the local administration did not abide the order of Trail and exempted taxes on Bheli, Sugar, Khand , grams, sandal etc for Temples. (Atkinson, page 25) . The letter of Trail of 1st December shows that administrator did not abide the order of Trail.
The tax officials were corrupt and they used to collect taxes on wood, forest produces from the businessmen at Ghat or Octroi posts but did not submit the tax to the treasury. The state was always in loss of not getting actual revenues. Trail advised to the administration for auctioning Octroi post on contract. The Shringar administration accepted the suggestion of Trail and started auctioning the Octroi post or toll tax posts to the contractors. The title for Wood tax was ‘Kath-bans’ (3).
Reference- 1- Atkinson, Himalayan districts Vol. 3, page 283
2 and 3-English Pre Mutiny Record , Kumaon 1816, Part -2, Vol.8
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, firstname.lastname@example.org 11/7/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -849
*** History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun, (Pauri , Rudraprayag, and Chamoli) Garhwal (1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page
3-Devar, English Pre Mutiny Records
4- Atkinson, Himalayan Districts vol. 3 ,
5- English Pre Mutiny Records, Kumaon 1816, part-1, Vol. – 7
6- Johan Pemble , Invasion of Nepal
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;