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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Friday, July 29, 2016

Land Management and Land Ownership in British Period

British Administration in Garhwal   -6         
       -
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -22
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -860
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                              By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
   In previous chapters, in Trail period, the land management agreements between British government and Sayana are already discussed.
      Trail did second revenue agreement with Padhan and government. ((Pauri Settlement report, page 55) Barring Nagpur, Sila , Lobha and a couple of other Pattis, all Padhans of Garhwal did agreement with British for dividing families of village , tax on each family and depositing the tax in Tehsil.
          Trail used to call all Padhans of a Patti and met them.  He used to inform them the last tax amount and used to instruct Padhans for analyzing crops, land and numbers of farmer families of each village and then distribute tax amount to each village. There were scanty farmers in villages. Padhan has to pay tax even farmers don’t pay tax. There was tendency of families migrating here and there. If any farmer or a couple of farmers used to migrate from the village, it was hard time for Gram Padhan (village chief or chief of more villages) for paying the decided tax amount. A Gram Padhan used to request not to migrate and other Padhan used to welcome the migrating family for settling in his village or area. Each Padhan was always in search of establishing a new farmer in his village from other villages.
       Trail sent a report about land revenue and land management to Board of Commissioners on 15th February 18120. By that report it seems that first the Padhan of a particular Patti used to decide them by discussion, and then they used to sign on Fardfant or agreement. Then government officials used to inform the tax (increased one) on each village or areas of Padhan. Usually, government officers used to increase one to three percent more than suggested amount by Padhan. One copy of agreement signed by Padhan was kept in treasury office and other copy was handed over to Padhan. The agreement for Nagpur, Lobha (far Pargana) etc was made with ‘Sayana’ of Parganas. Trail understood in the beginning that the Indian (Garhwal) government servants were corrupt, have nepotism tendency and don’t abide judicial means. Therefore, he never called government officers while he was discussing tax with Gram Padhans in meeting.  Trail wrote that that procedure of negotiating directly with Padhan was the best in terms of judiciary and logics. (Devar)
 
   
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 25/7/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -861
*** History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun, (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli) Garhwal (1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX   
References  
 1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page 153-154
2-Devar, English Pre Mutiny Records, page 462

 
      Xx
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system,  over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies Revenue system  over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system  over Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;