British Administration in Kumaon-Garhwal -1
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -17
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -855
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
In British rule, Kumaon was a commisionery. The head of Kumaon commisionery was Commissioner. Under the commissioner was assistant commissioner that was changed to deputy commissioner post later on. Hierarchal, under the deputy commissioner were Tehsildar,Kanungo, and Patwari. Thokdar and Malgujar were semi government workers.
Kumaon commissioner had exclusive and especial power than commissioners of plains.
Commissioners of Kumaon Division
Edward Gardner- Edward was the first commissioner of Kumaon. He did not complete even a year as commissioner. In 1815, he abolished Child sales custom and abolished tax on child sales. Gardner was busy mainly on political and diplomatic activities. British government/Company appointed Trail as Assistant Commissioner in 1815.
In April 1816, East India Company promoted Gardner and appointed him ambassador of Nepal and sent him to Nepal.
B.W Trail- Trail worked as Executive commissioner in absence of Gardner from 1816- 1817. Company promoted Trail as commissioner of Kumaon on 1st August 1817. Trail took over additional charge of Barely in 1835. Trail was one of the strict, active and disciplined commissioners of Kumaon and Garhwal. He corrected land management for eight times in Garhwal.
There were negative points in Trail administration. Trail allowed caw slaughters in Kumaon and threatened sending them to exile in Banaras those were opposing caw slaughters. Bird wrote about Trail,” There is need of improvement in criminal judiciary . I came to know that under Trail administration, administrators putting innocent into jail without verification or being compelled to work on road.” (Pandey)
Colonel Gowan- In 1831, Company appointed colonel as Commissioner of Kumaon division. Now, Board of Commissioners increased vigilance. In 1836, government declared sales of children, slaves, girls as criminal offence. There was regular opposition from people against killing of caws. However, caw slaughtering continued in army camps.
In 1837, Bird criticized the administrations of Trail and Gowan (Atkinson )
G.T Lushington – East India Company appointed G. T Lushington as Commissioner of Kumaon division in 1846.
In 1839, government divided Kumaon into two districts- Kumaon and Garhwal. There were two assistant commissioners for administrating each district.
J.H. Batten – G.T Lushington died in 1848. Company appointed H.T. Batten as commissioner of Kumaon. Previously, Batten was assistant commissioner of Garhwal.
Board of commissioners and government wanted to run the Kumaon administrations as per their ways. Batten has agreement with them. Batten was expert in understanding and satisfying the higher authorities. Higher authorities were aware about caliber of Batten. Therefore, higher authorities used to take suggestions of Batten.
Due to his influences on higher authorities, batten was able for bringing newness in administration. He changed the administration system.
In 1851, Batten printed the reports of Kumaon in volumes. Those reports are interesting till dates.
In 1952, Calcutta Review criticized batten that he was spending money on army roads and bridges but no person walked on those roads and bridges.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, email@example.com 18/7/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -856
*** History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun, (Pauri , Rudraprayag, and Chamoli) Garhwal (1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page 142
2-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -6, Gorkhyali
3-Pandey, Kumaon ka Itihas, page 451
4-Atkinson, Himalayan districts, vol-2, page 648
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;