Administration of G. W. Trail in Garhwal -15
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -16
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -854
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
Initially, Trail handed over the tax collection or land management to the ‘Sayana’ or ‘Kamin’ for collecting taxes from their Patti/Thok. Most of the Sayana were ‘sayana’ in Gurkha period too. Most of the ‘Sayana’ were in heavy debts. However, for position and power, those ‘sayana’ did not leave the position of ‘Sayana’.
There were many villages under a ‘Sayana’. Sayana distributed the job of collecting Tax from Padhan (village chief). People used to call ‘Sayana’ as ‘Thokdar’. However, Dr. Dabral sates that he inspected 100 of land management records and he did not get any word ‘Thokdar’ in those records of initial British administration.
Gurkha followed ‘Sayana’ administrative concept as was in Garhwal Kingdom. British followed the Gurkha pattern of ‘Sayana’ administration concept with little amendment. Therefore, ‘Sayana’ was the the practical King or dictator of Thok or Patti even in initial period of British rule. Though, in agreement, there was no mention of ‘Sayana’ taking gifts (dastur) from the subjects, ‘Sayana used to take gifts from the subjects.
‘Sayana’ had to collect tax through ‘Padhan’ (village chief). ‘Sayana’ used to deposit tax at Tehsildar office and used to record the tax and used to get receipt from Tehsil as ‘Dakhila’.
Trail amended the administrative rules. In Garhwal Kingdom, and Gurkha regimes, Raut, Thakur, Mana chaunl, Faujdar and in Grukha administration, soldiers too used to rule and take taxes as per their wishes. Trail stopped the policies and asked soldiers, policing bodies not to interfere in revenue departments. Sayana and revenue departments were asked not to interfere in police or defense jobs.
Hierarchy and Communication
In Garhwali Kingdom, the final ordere used to flow from Shrinagar. Kathmandu was the final authority for Gurkha rule.
The general order started coming from Almora. Delhi residency also used to send order from Delhi. East India Company header quarter at Kolkata or ‘sadar’ used to send comments or order on very important matters after discussion with required administrators. Garhwal was under and part of British rule or Company Bahadur rule.
Communication and transportation were not easy jobs. Trail used to visit Gardner on weekly basis and used to report him all important or non important matters. Trail used to get permission from Gardner. Gardner used to copy the letter of Trail and used to post the copy of Trail’s letter with his comments to Kolkata. After discussion, the decision was taken in Kolkata. Company secretary John Adam used communicate the final order of Head quarter to Gardner and Trail. Many times, East India Company head quarter Kolkata used to send letter to Board of Directors London for taking decision on important matter.
The administrative methods were very systematic. The local British (European) officers were supposed to learn local languages, religious customs, and social customs and were supposed to have relationship with local people that they know the reality. The reports of British officials show that they used to observe matters minutely and seriously.
Initially, the administration language was Hindi in Garhwal. However, after that urdu became the the administration language of Garhwal too. But urdu could not take the place of Hindi.
The administrators of British and independent Indian administration burnt many important papers in the name of ‘Chhantai’ or cleaning.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, firstname.lastname@example.org 17/7/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -855
*** History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun, (Pauri , Rudraprayag, and Chamoli) Garhwal (1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page 142
2-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -6, Gorkhyali
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;