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Friday, July 8, 2016

Trail Administration in Shrinagar

Administration of G. W. Trail in Garhwal and Kumaon -5

History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -6
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -844
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                              By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
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              Trail changed a few administrative systems by reviewing old system and customs in Shrinagar.
                     Jhula Construction on Alaknanda River
      In Shrinagar, for crossing Alaknanda River there was a rope way bridge (Jhula). Constructors used to dismantle the rope way bridge before monsoon arrival. Most probably the rope way bridge   was from a big stone near the King palace. The Jhula construction and dismantling system was same in Gurkha regime as was in Garhwali king regime. Before, trail came, the bridge constructors (Manjhi) constructed Rope Way Bridge on Alaknanda. Gurkha administrators used to pay from Gurkha rupees 20 to 50 to bridge constructors (Manjhi). The Bridge constructors demanded for Farrukhabadi Rs 15 from Trail and Trail accepted the demand for constructing the Bridge on Alaknanda River. (Pre Mutiny Records 1816, part 1)
                         Donation for Temples
           In Garhwali King Period and Gurkha period, the state used to collect tax from pilgrims at Sayar ( A Chabutara for pilgrims ) in Shrinagar for temples.
      From the above collection, state used to offer donations for following 36 temples –Badrinath, Kursh Muroni, Hanuman (talla) , Hanuman ( Uprala), Keshoray (Talla), Keshoray (Uprala), Kamleshwar, Budha Kedar, Juntur, Nagsur, Dakshin kali, Mahishmardani, Gorakhnath, nandadevi, Shitaladevi, Vilkeshwar etc.
 In 1812, there was income from pilgrims for Gurkha Rs 1269 (Farukhavadi Rs. 951 and twelve Ana ) In 1816, the income from pilgrims was Farukhavadi Rs 999 and 10 Ana. Trail distributed that income to temples under British Garhwal. Trail left the responsibility to Tehri King for donations to the temple of Tehri Kingdom.
                      Contract for Import Duty on Grass in Shrinagar

           There was import duty on Grass coming to Shrinagar from outside in Garhwali Kingdom and Gurkha Rule too.
         In the year 1813, there was income by import levy on Gras for Gurkha Rs.120 (Farukhavadi Rs 90).
     Trail passed contract for four Ana per day for Grass Import duty to a contractor.
                  State Seal on Taka (Coins)
  In Garhwali kingdom and Gurkha period, people used to come to State Mint with their copper and used to make coins with state Seal on coins. Coin maker used to pay a fee. Coin making at State Mint was done by the contractor. Trail kept the same system of coin making. Trail guessed for the income for F.Rs 100 from the Mint.
                         Excise Levies
        There was income for Gurkha Rs 270/- from the levies on soaps, narcotic materials as Tobacco, Charas etc through contractors. Trail passed the contract for excise levies on the above materials for Twelve Ana per day to a contractor. Trail was sure of more income from the excise duty on above items.
                  Marriage Gifts to the State
          In Garhwali King Period and Gurkha Period, there was a state levy for marriages taking place in Shrinagar. The state used to offer a Turban to the couple. Trail stopped levies on marriages.
                       Donations for Badri and Kedar Temples
                There was a custom that Governments under Garhwali King and later Gurkha rule used to pay donations for Badrinath and Kedar Temple. In 1813, Gurkha administration paid Gurkha Rs 280 (F Rs- 210) to the temples.
         Trail requested for money from his bosses for donations to the temples.  Johan Adam sent a permission letter on 15thApril 1816, for Trail for offering donation for Rs 210 to Badrinath and Kedarnath temples (Atkinson ).
     The Garhwali Kingdom and Kumaon Kingdom donated 226 villages to Badrinath and Kumaon temples ( Vishnupriti). The income of temples from those villages was around Rs 2080 annually. British high command instructed Trail not to interfere in religious activities. Trail was instructed that he should check that the income from villages should not be used for personal uses by temple authorities.  (Hamilton).  




(Chapter Reference - English Pre Mutiny Records, Kumaon 1816, part-1, Vol. – 7 , Atkinson, Himalyan districts volume 3, page 25, Hamilton )

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 7/7/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -845
*** History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun, (Pauri , Rudraprayag, and Chamoli) Garhwal (1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX   
References  
 1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan,  part -1, page 123 
2-Maularam, Badariashtak
3-Devar, English Pre Mutiny Records
4- Atkinson, Himalayan Districts vol. 3 ,
 5- English Pre Mutiny Records, Kumaon 1816, part-1, Vol. – 7
6- Johan Pemble , Invasion of Nepal
7- Hmailton, Description of Hindustan vol. 2, page 638)
      Xx
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system,  over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies Revenue system  over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system  over Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;