History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -81
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -326
By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
Kumaon attack on Garhwal Kingdom does not have any logic and authenticity too.
Small-Small Thakurais in Garhwal
There were small Kingdoms in Garhwal at the time of Ajeypal rise. In every valley and hill to, there was one chieftain of Garhiraja.
No doubt there are no inscriptions about so many Garhis but ruins of many Garhis were witness.
It is said that Ajeypal won over all Garhis. However, there is no logical answer for the question of Ajeypal winning all Garhis of Garhwal. It seems that Ajeypal did not win whole South Garhwal (Salan) especially Gangasalan and Talla Salan. Dr Dabral assumed that Ajeypal’s territory was upto Najibabad and Afajlgarh. Researched found Shershah coins in Ajmer Patti of Gangasalan.
Winning over Small Garhis by Ajeypal
The record at Tehri Riyasat and folklore state that following Garhis (small Thakurais) were there at Ajeypal period.
1-43 Garhis of Painkhanda and Jumala
2-Dumag Garhpati . Kandargarh was capital of this kingdom around Mandakini valley.
3- Aswal Garhpati of Malla Salan were being threatened by Muslim attackers. Aswals were not able to resist Muslim attacks. This might be reason that Aswals chieftains might took shelter under Ajeypal.
4-Uppugarh of Chauhan chieftain- Ajeypal won over Uppugarh of Kaffu Chauhan.
5-Janhavi Garhi- The upper Bhagirathi region Janhavi or Jadganga had a Gangtang Garhi. Gangtang Garhi coins were found and Raturi mentioned about those coins. Dr. Dabral sent the picture of these coin pictures to archeological survey but he reported that scholars could not read those coins.
It is said that due to Kumaon attack, Ajeypal shifted capital from Chandpur to Devalgarh. Rajrajeshwari temple or Peeth was established there only.
A few scholars claim that Ajeypal shifted again from Devalgarh to Shrinagar. It seems that Devalgarh was just shelter to Ajeypal.
Shrinagar as Capital
A group of scholars argue that Ajeypal shifted his capital from Devalgarh to Shrinagar. Folklore states that Ajeypal was in Shrinagar region for hunting, Ajeypal saw that a rabbit killed a hunter dog. In Night, in his dream, Bhagwati goddess ordered Ajeypal to establish his capital where rabbit killed hunter dog. Ajeypal established his capital at Shrinagar. Most probably Ajeypal might analyzed that Shrinagar is at Alaknanda River bank and there flat -even land.
However, Atikinson argued that Ajeypal did not establish Shrinagar as capital but his great grandson Manshah established Shringar as capital. However, dr Dabral argued that there are no proofs left in Devalgarh that prove that Devalgarh was capital for five generations of Ajeypal. Manodaya Kavya states that capital of Manshah (grandfather of Mahipatshah) was Manpur at Alaknanda River Bank .Manpur and Shrinagar are same place.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, firstname.lastname@example.org/4//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -327
1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal; SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal; Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal; South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal; Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal; Medieval History of Haridwar ; South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar; South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ; South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued