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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Thursday, January 23, 2014

Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Garhwal

History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -6

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -251

                       ByBhishma Kukreti (A History Student)


                   There were many Garhi or regional chieftains of tribes or small territories in Garhwal and Kumaon. The same situation existed in Nepal, Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir and Afghanistan.  The powerful chieftains used to attack on smaller or weak Garhi or tribes and used to increase their influential regions. There was no single Garhpati or chieftain who could win over major territories.

            Reasons of Wars among Regional Chieftains or Gadhpati
                  Each chieftain used to fight with other chieftain and weakening each other area. The constant fighting allowed others to dominate them.
 There were three main reasons for war among chieftains-
1-Boundary Disputes- Boundary disputes was to get supremacy.
2-Old enmities- The old enmities were other reasons for infighting among Gadhpati. If a warrior is killed in a war, his widow used to nourish her children in lonely forest or village and used to inspire children to take revenge who killed their father. Many times widows fought among themselves.
3-For women- The chieftains used to attack other region by hearing stories about a beautiful girl or woman. The chieftains used to fell pride on consuming women of his region.  
  The weapons were bow-arrow, swords, Khukari. Bamboo sticks was another weapon. Stones were kept on top of hills and when the enemy used to march towards hills from down the soldiers used to push stones towards valley.

                         Bhad or Hudkiya

                   Gadhpati or chieftains used to appoint Hudkiyas who used to sing inspirational songs for soldiers and used to sing in praise of Gadhpati. Hudkiya used to have a drum type music instrument.

                      Gram Panchayat or Village Councils

           Gram Panchayat or Village Councils used to manage the social and judiciary in villages. Village council chief was called Pradhan, Thokdar or Sayana. The village councilor used to listen the pleas of people on a big respectful stone. In many villages, such stones are still exist. The villagers used to pay tribute or tax to Gadhpati in the form of grains, Ghee.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com23/1/2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter          
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -252  

 Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Haridwar, Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Dehradun, Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Jaunsar Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Ravain Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Gangotri region Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Uttarkashi Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Bhilangana valley Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Tehri Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Kedar valley Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Neeti- Mana region Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Chamoli Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Rudraprayag Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Rath, Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Pauri region Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Salan region Garhwal;