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Thursday, January 2, 2014

History aspects of General Administration in Chand Dynasty in Kumaon Kingdom

 (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 235

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti

                        Faujdar of Kiledar in Chand Dynasty in Kumaon Kingdom

             Faujdar means regional defense commander of a Pargana. Faujdar used to have a small permanent armed force. Initially in Champawat, men from Karki, Bora, Tadagi and Chaudhri families were Faujdar of Chand Kings.
     In later stage, Rautela (from Chand family) were appointed as Faujdar of won territory.
  Faujdar or Kiledar words were taken from Muslim and Mogul Empire style of administration.

          Other Governing Employees in Chand Rule
            There were no exclusive departments to look after defense, offense, justice, internal security and administration. Depending upon the choice of King, the work was handed over to any minister.
               Purushottam Pant led the winning battle of Seera. He was called ‘Parshdon me Sharvshreshth’ or the best among ministers. The army commanders Shiv Dev Joshi is described as ‘Kumaun ka Seerdar Seev Dev Bisht’. Now, Bisht is Rajput caste. However, initially Bisht word was derived from Vishishth or exclusive or the best.
     The government used to pay regular salaries to Rasoiya (Cook); Rasoi Daroga (police officer of Kitchen); Musahab and Rajcheliyan (maid servants) of palace. Rasoi Daroga had to taste food before cook and the king before the King start taking meal.
       Shakti Gusain divided administrative officers into Srdar, Faujdar and Negi as Manger, Supervisors and workers. Sardar were regional head of administration. Faujdar used to look after defense services and Negi were working class in administration. Negi used to get salary and Dasture (customery grains from village).
  The administrator of Mal 9Bhabhar and Tarai) was designated as Mal Sardar. There were no fixed rules for salary, promotion and pension.  
 Chakar, Chopdar, Khavas, Khavasan were different low cadre servants. Nakkarchi, Mirasi and Bhand were for entertaining the King and other elites.
 Vakil were ambassadors sent to neighboring countries, Mogul court. Valik used to inform the current situation of other country.

                 Sayana, Budha, Thokdar

        Sayana, Budha or Thokdar were to collect revenue taxes.
 The tax collectors in Pali and Baramandal were called ‘Sayana’
 The tax collectors in Kali Kumaon, Johar and Darma were called Budha.
The tax collectors in the regions were called Thokdar.
 Usually, Budha, Sayana and Thokdar were authorized to use their flags and drums to announce their arrival.
 The Kumaon Kings used to take advices from Budha of Kali Kumaon at critical situations as appointing heir for the Kingdom.
Mara and Fadtyal groups were among sayana, Budha and Thokdar.
 By law, sayana, Budha and Thokdar were supposed to cooperate and help Kingdom regional or national army.
Budha, sayana used to collect tax as ‘Sayanachari either in form of money or materials. These tax collectors used to collect specific additional tax as per King announcement. Villagers used to work free on specific works as in marriage or festive time in the family of Sayana, Thokdar or Budha.
 Initially there were four Sayana from Katyuri family in Pali. Bajbahadur appointed Sanvaliya Bisht and Bangari Raut as Sayana. These Bisht and Bangar Raut deceived their motherland (Garhwal) from Kumaon King Bajbhadur.
 In Kali Kumaon, there were eight Budha those were from Tadagi, Kharku, Bora and Chaudhri families.
 Sayana, Budha or Thokdar were authorized to appoint village chief (Padhan). After appointment, Padhan used to pay tribute to sayana in form of lamb meat (thigh portion) , milk, ghee, maize and gifts in the marriage time of Sayana, Budha or Thokdar.

                  Ritual Performing Class

          There were Guru, Pauranik and Dharmadhikary types of positions for religious ritual performers.
        The Brahmin scholars as Joshi from Jhinjhad; Pande from Shimalt; Pande from Devliya or Mandoliya were appointed on such positions. These were called ‘Chauthani’. Later on Tiwari caste was also included.
   For Tantrik performances, the Brahmins from Bangal or Maghad were called.
Pauranik Brahmins used to tell the religious stories etc.
 Purohit used to perform Karmkand religious rituals.
 Dharmadhikari were to provide decision of religious matter a s repent etc. Dharmadhikari used to looking after management of temples and Sanskrit schools. Dharmadhikari used to administrate caste system in the Kingdom.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 2/1/2014


Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -236  
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
History of Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Champawat Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Bageshwar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Nainital Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Almora Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, North India; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, South Asia; History aspects of General Administration in Chand Dynasty in Kumaon Kingdom; History aspects of General Administration in Chand Dynasty in Bhabhar –Tarai of Kumaon Kingdom; History aspects of General Administration in Chand Dynasty  in Pithoragarh of Kumaon Kingdom; History aspects of General Administration in Chand Dynasty  in Champawat of Kumaon Kingdom; History aspects of General Administration in Chand Dynasty  in Bageshwar of Kumaon Kingdom; History aspects of General Administration in Chand Dynasty  in of Nainital Kumaon Kingdom; History aspects of General Administration in Chand Dynasty  in Almora  of Kumaon Kingdom;