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Friday, January 24, 2014

North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Garhwal

History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -7

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -252

                       ByBhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                  Social Customs in Garhi Rule in Garhwal

       There were main three social classes in Garhi period of Garhwal –
Brahmin
Rajput
         And Craftsman (The name was ‘Doom’ but this word is now unconstitutional)
There was dominance of Tantrik Brahmin than Karmkandi Brahmin. Nath sect was dominating sect among Brahmin and Craftsmen or Shilpkar communities. Tantrik- Mantrik used to company rulers in war and hunting.
 Khas were in majority among Rajput community. In fact, most of Rajput communities were outsiders. Khas were very powerful.
             Male used to protect their women and frequent fights among Garhi rulers were for women among people.  In some cases, Sati custom was seen among ruling community. However, in society Sati custom was not there among common people. Widow marriage was very common.  Having more than one wife was a tradition. In many areas common wife for brothers was also a tradition.

                       Religious Customs

   Village deities and goddesses had importance in every part of life.
              Nagraja, Narsingh, Ghandiyal, Kshetrapal, Goril, Gwull, Nirankar deities had already come in existence. People used to believe that those deities were as human beings. People believed that deities offer protection, health, health rescue and prosperity to devotees.
 People used to believe on Ancheri (oread), Bhut (dissatisfied souls), Pishach (bad souls) etc.
                  There were strong beliefs on Mantra and Tantra. People believed that Tantra-Mantra power could defeat the enemy. Mantrik used to perform rituals on ash, mustarded seeds (Rangud Mantran and Rai Mantran) cow urine, milk, Ghee, Ganga water etc.

                    Day to Day Life
  Rulers used to take tax on land, domestic animals, milk etc. The people had least demand for life. They had least clothing.
 Medicinal researches were nowhere and people used to die in immature age. There were various accidental causes of death. Epidemics and animal bites were common factors for death.
  There was inbound social structure for keeping land intact as single wife of all brothers, land ownership to eldest ones. Suicide was common to get heaven after death. Jogi –Jogan had important place in society. People used to put child on the Jholi of Jogi or Jogan for protecting the child from evils.
                  Making daughters as Dev Dasi (temple prostitute or dancer) was common customs.
              Famine was a common factor.  Due to less availability of food, slavery was common. People used to sell their children and women. Many communities used to visit planes in winter season for selling Ganga water or for begging.

                             Hardship in Life

          There was hardship in every step of life. Administration was unstable and was another cause not going for new adventure in agriculture.
       Migration from planes was more and new culture was invading the old customs. Khas rulers were not sponsors for Temple building, Sanskrit. There was no scope for learning and did not come any new architecture in Garhi period.

 Powerful rulers used to take weaker Garhi under them. Anarchism was common.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com24/1/2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter          
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -253  

North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Garhwal; North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Haridwar Garhwal; North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Dehradun Garhwal; North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Uttarkashi  Garhwal; North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Tehri Garhwal; North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Chamoli Garhwal; North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Rudraprayag Garhwal; North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Pauri Garhwal; North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Garhwal, Himalaya;