(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
(History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 237
In Kumaon and Garhwal, there were two basic castes –Bitth and Shilpkar. Bitth (touchable or upper caste) were owners of land but Shilpkar did not have ownership on land. Among Bitth, there were two basic caste systems- Rajput and Brahmin. There were sub castes among Brahmin and Rajput. They converted hill land into agriculture purpose. It took many centuries. These villages were called That or Thati (derived from Dharti). Farmers had customary ownership on agriculture and non state forest too. The King was not authorizes to dislodge the ownership till the farmer is paying state tax or there is accusation of traitor on farmer. Farmer is also not permitted to sell the village land.
The King was sole owner of land of Kumaon. The king had authority to award land to religious person or army man who showed bravery in the war. The king could take land in three situations
1-Sankalp or Vishnupriti- the King could award land for temple, priests or scholars.
2- As Raut- If a person showed bravery in protecting Kingdom interest the king used to award land to soldiers as ‘Raut’.Later on the descdents of such families were called Rawat.
3-Jagir- the King used to provide villages or regions to his ministers, court workers in place of cash salaries. These Jagir holders used to get grains from farmers who used to do farming.
The King could change the ownership of Jagir or Raut but not the land awarded to temples or religious means (Vishnupriti).
Thatwan or Landownership
The land owner or farmer used to be called Thatwan.
Later on when a Rajput or Khasia or Brahmin was awarded land was called Garkha. The land owner under Vishnu Priti was also called Thatwan. The old owner or Thatwan was called Kadimi and would go under new Thatwan.
Both type of Thatwan had to pay tax. There used to be clear instruction on inscriptions for tax heaven for land under Vishnupriti.
Thatwan was free to farm on his own land. However, Thatwan was not supposed to leave land or deny tax payment. Land tax collection was much disciplined and the state used to auction land in case of non tax payment from Thatwan. The Thatwan had to apply for leaving the land by offering a stone and a rupee.
New Thatwan was not authorized to dislodge ownership of farmers. New Thatwan used to keep one third of land for himself. The old Thatwan was called Khaykar of Thatwan. Khaykar had to pay tax to Thatwan instead of state officers. Thatwan used to pay tax directly to state revenue officers.
The Khaykar had to serve Thatwan for various works. If Khyakan wanted to settle other places he was free to do so.
Thatwan and Khaykar used to provide alnd to othe farmers for farming and such farmers were called ‘Sirtan’. Sirtan had to offer grains on every crops to Thatwan or Khaykar and was supposed to serve too.
Thatwan or Khaykar were free to make owners to their son in law or Dharmputra by taking permission from the state authorities or king. Khaykar or Thatwan were free to mortgage their land.
Records of Land
There was system of record keeping of land owners with land details in capital and head quarters of Pargana. However, the record keeping system had many flaws. There was tax on each village for the salries of Lekhwar or record keepers.
Partition of Land
The partition was done by ‘Sautiya Bant’ or Bhair bant system that is still exists in Uttarakhand. Elder brother used to get an addition farm as ‘Jithali’
If wives are common the sons were also called Common (Sajhi).
Amon Brahmins and Rajput the children from authorized marriages were to get ownership of land and children from ‘Kam Asal’ wife (children from Keeping wife, Dhanti, Widow, Shilpkar or Bandi ) were not authorized to get ownership. In some caste of Rajput, all children used to get ownership. There were societies of some caste, where daughters used to get ownership after death of parents.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -firstname.lastname@example.org 5/1/2014
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(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -238
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
(Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom; History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom including Pithoragarh; History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom including Champawat; History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom including Bageshwar; History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom including Almora; History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom including Nainital; History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom including Bhabhar; History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom including Tarai; History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom including Udham Singh Nagar; History of Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Champawat Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Bageshwar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Nainital Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Almora Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, North India; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, South Asia;