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Wednesday, January 8, 2014

History Review of Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Kumaon

 (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
                                        
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 240

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti

                      Mineralogy in Chand Kingdoms


                   Till medieval period, the perception in plains about Garhwal and Kumaon was that both the regions are full of gold and other mineral mines. Many small time rulers from planes attacked on Kumaon and Garhwal for gold mines.
    There were mines of iron, copper in Kumaon. Glass, , graphite, alums, Shilajit , sulfur , gypsum , lime were main minerals.
 No state support was there for developing mining technology. Therefore, the mining was dependent on old methods of techniques. The entry gate and inside path used to be so small that the miner could not stand up. There were old and low productive methods for smelting and melting the oars.
               Kings used to give mines on contract to mine contractors. The average state annual income from mines was rupees eight to ten thousands.
 The Dhunar used to collect gold from Ramganga sand. Such Dhunar used to earn one forth of a rupee from collecting gold dust from sands.

                                   Income from Forest

   There were various altitude types of trees, bush and plants in Kumaon.
Sal, Khair (Catechue), Dhak , bamboo, Kukath , Pine, Devdau,wood was in good demand in planes.
Kumaon was having demand for mediciaml plants. Besides, there was good demand for fibrous products.
 There was also good demand for wild animals as export.
            Kings used to give forests to contractors on contract. Contractors used to export the forest produces and used to pay Chungi or tax at check gate. Contractors were free to cut any tree under his contractual forests.  The government servants wee corrupt at Check gate at contractors used to avoid tax to the government.
 Bhabhar was main source of income from forest produces.
         Villagers have right on the village forests.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 8/1/2014

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -241  
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

South Asian History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Bhabhar Kumaon; South Asian History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Tarai Kumaon; History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Nainital Kumaon; South Asian History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Almora Kumaon; South Asian History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Champawat Kumaon; South Asian History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Bageshwar Kumaon; South Asian History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Pithoragarh Kumaon; South Asian History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Kumaon (Uttarakhand); South Asian History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Kumaon, Himalaya; South Asian History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Kumaon, North India;