History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -8
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -253
By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)
In twelfth or end of eleventh century, Challa ruling class from Nepal destroyed Katyuri of Baijnah Kingdom. For administrating from Nepal, Challa divided Garhwal-Kumaon into regions or (Mandals) and offered ruling power to Mandlik or regional chieftains. In later stage, these regional chieftains became rulers of tens of Kingdoms. However, that division did not minimize the cultural unity of today’s Garhwal and Kumaon. There is exclusivity in the region between Tones-Yamuna to Kali Ganga that separates Uttarakhand region from Nepal, Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir and Afghanistan of Himalaya. The geographical aspects of Uttarakhand is exclusive than North East Himalayan region of India. In north of Uttarakhand is Tibet (China) and even Uttarakhand had exclusivity against Himalayan Tibet in many respects.
Before, Katyuri took ruling in Uttarkhand, Nand, Maurya, Maukhari, Gupta, Harsha and Paurav kings had ruling in Uttarakhand but its cultural and geographical exclusivity remained intact. Katyuri ruled on Uttarakhand for two hundred years from Joshimath and two hundred years from Baijnath. They enhanced the cultural unity and that unity still exists in Uttarkhand.
Various social and the cultural beliefs, structures started from Katyuri rules in Uttarakhand.
Badrinath, Kedarnath, Tapovan, Simli, Adi Badri , Dev Prayag, Jageshwar, Bageshwar pilgrim places got specific places in religious tourism map of India in Katyuri period. Shankaracharya reestablished the religious power of Badrinath and Kedarnath. Medhakar types of saints came to Dev Prayag in this period.
Uttarakhand attracted saints, religious priests, religious leaders, temple architectures from all parts of India. Uttarkhand became the land of Gods and Goddesses (Dev Bhumi).
Origin of Garhwali and Kumaoni Languages
Katyuri period is also credited for developing two exclusive languages in the region. Khas language is the mother of Garhwali and Kumaoni languages. Garhwali and Kumaoni languages were derived by culturing distorted Khas language. There are similarities in both the languages in terms of form, postures but slowly both languages developed exclusivity too. The exclusivity in between Garhwali and Kumaoni languages also inspired for having two exclusive Garhwali and s Kumaoni societies in the region. However, cultural and religious words could intact the cultural unity very intact.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, firstname.lastname@example.org/1/2014
1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -254
History aspects of Naming Kedarkhand and Garhwal; History aspects of Naming Kedarkhand and Garhwal (Including-Pauri Garhwal district); History aspects of Naming Kedarkhand and Garhwal (Including-Tehri Garhwal District); History aspects of Naming Kedarkhand and Garhwal (Including-Uttarkashi Garhwal District); History aspects of Naming Kedarkhand and Garhwal (Including-Chamoli Garhwal District); History aspects of Naming Kedarkhand and Garhwal (Including-Rudraprayag Garhwal District); History aspects of Naming Kedarkhand and Garhwal (Including-Haridwar Garhwal District); History aspects of Naming Kedarkhand and Garhwal (Including-Dehradun Garhwal District);