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Thursday, January 2, 2014

Alankar or Figure of Speeches in Garhwali Folk Dramas

गढवाली लोक नाटकों / लोक  नृत्य -गीतों में अलंकार

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -68

                                    Bhishma Kukreti

            According to Bhama Sastri (Kavyalankar), defines Kavya (poetry) as word and meaning taken together constitute ‘Kavya’ (Poetry). It is of two kinds ‘prose’ and ‘verse’. According to Bhama Sastri, drama comes under Kavya or Poetry.
  Ornamentation or stylish devices are necessarily used in every literature.
         The words or phrases those beautify the drama /poetry or other literary segment is called ‘Alankar’ or figure of speech.  
          Figure of speech is using word/words or phrases that excel its literal interpretation.
        According to Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, there are following characteristics of uses of Figure of Speeches in every Folk Drama –
1-The beautification of words or phrases are must for folk songs or drama.
2- The words or scene should create sensitivity and figure of speeches should be used for effect.
3- There should be relevancy in using figure speeches
4- Figure of speeches should not be pushed from outside but should be part of poetry or drama.  
 According to Jensen (2008),, there are following main components of figure of speeches (rhetorical operations ) –
1-Addition (repetition/expansion/superabundance etc)
2-Omition (lack/subtraction/abridgement)
3-Transportation (transferring)
4-Permutaion (switching/interchange/substation/transmutation

          Figure of speeches are used in both the form of folk dramas that is in folk prose and folk poetic dramas.
 Some uses of Figure of Speeches in Garhwali folk drama-
Adnomination Figure of Speech: repletion of words with same root word.
स्यु अणबुल्या अणछण्या ग्युं तक नि लै सौक. 
Alliteration: Series of words that begin with same consonant
1-कुखुड़ कुकरौं डौरी कोड़ि पैथर चली गेन अर कुकर कुकडुंक कुछ नि बिगाड़ सकिन I
  2- चोरुंक चर चर बचन I    
          In the following chapters, we shall discuss various types of figure speeches of Sanskrit and English as well.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 2/1/2014

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter.

                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
 Xx
 Figure of Speeches  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Figure of Speeches     in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Figure of Speeches   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Figure of Speeches   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Figure of Speeches   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Figure of Speeches  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Figure of Speeches  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Figure of Speeches  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia;
गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  अलंकार,  टिहरी गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में अलंकार ;उत्तरकाशी गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  अलंकारहरिद्वारगढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  अलंकार ;देहरादून गढ़वाल के गढवालीलोक नाटकों में  अलंकार ;पौड़ी गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  अलंकार;चमोली गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  अलंकाररुद्रप्रयाग गढ़वाल केगढवाली लोक नाटकों में    अलंकार ;