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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Monday, January 20, 2014

Garhi Administration in Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century

History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -2

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -247

                       ByBhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

               The Gadhpati or Rulers of Northern Garhwal Border touching Tibet

                 In early age, Tankan community settled in Northern Garhwal touching Tibet. Due to settling of Tankan community in North Garhwal Himalaya, Garhwal automatically was divided into two specific parts. Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral shows probability that Western north Garhwal or Taknaur was ruled by Badahat Gadhpati or influenced by Badahat Gadhpati (rulers of Garh). The eastern part was called Katyuri region. Katyuri ruled in this region.
             The rulers of Taknaur region were called Sughadh or Budhere. The elders and old men used to take decisions for political, cultural, social and economical activities. The rule was as Kabila administration.
           Gadhtang fort was important for Badahat rulers and Tibetan people in terms of defense strategy. Tibetans used to attack on Badahat regions (Uttarkashi). Historians found Tibetan coins from nearby area of Gadhtang fort, Badahat region.  
 The powerful rulers of Taknaur or Tankan region used to attack on south rulers in winter season.

               Life of Inhabitants of Tankan Region touching Tibet  

              The inhabitants of Tankan and Painkhanda regions had to settle in southern region in winter season.
          Due to inhabitant less in upper Himalayan region of Garhwal in winter season, Tibetan looters used to encroach in this area and used to loot valuables. Tibet looters looted Badrinath temple many times.   
             Livelihood of Taknaur or Tankan Region
    The inhabitants of Tankan region had to depend on commercial acts with Tibet. Tankan people were also herdsmen. In summer, they used to take sellable materials of Garhwal on the backs of goat and sheep to Tibet and in winter they used to sell products of Tibet in Garhwal till Bhabhar. This practice was there very much till China war 1962. Tibet salt was always in demand. The woolen clothing was also in demand in Garhwal for centuries.
         Bhotiya (commonly called for Tankan people) created a special business based language called Bhotiya language. Most Bhotiya followed Buddhism or Lama Religion. A few Bhotiya followed worshipping deities and goddesses of Hindu religion.

                         Gadhpati of Mandakini valley
                Mandakini valley was most protected region of Garhwal. Mandakini valley was also superior in terms of natural beauty and fertile land.
                Gopeshwar was the capital of Kedarbhumi or Mandakini valley in the periods of Nag Kings and Chall kings.
 Today, we only know about Ngapur Garh and Kandar Garh of Mandakini valley.
 It is said that the last Gadhpati or ruler of Nagpur Garh was Sajan Singh. No other details are available about Nagpur Garh. It is believed that Kandar Garh was established in thirteenth century.
    The rulers of Garhs of Mandakini valley were peace lovers and able administrators. Gopeshwar was famous pilgrim place. Rulers and other devotees built temples there.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com18/1/2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India  
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola , Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas  

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter          
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -248  

History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Mana Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Neeti Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Nanda Devi region of Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Border of Tibet in Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Badahat Uttarkashi Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Gopeshwar Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Mandakini Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Nagpur Gadh Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Kandar Garh Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in north Chamoli Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in North Rudraprayag Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century;