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Thursday, January 9, 2014

History Aspects of Water and Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Kumaon

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
                                        
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 241

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti

                Water Resource in Chand Period in Kumaon

                  There are hundreds of rivers and rivulets in Kumaon. Barring small rivulets no big rivers were used for irrigation not only in Chand regime but today time too. Small rivulets are more beneficial than bigger rivers. Small rivulets were used for irrigation by canals and for uses of water mill or turbine.
 Chand king supported canal making in Bhabhar and Tarai but not in hills.
Kumaon kings used to levy tax on water mills. There was tax on Dhunar for catching fishes caught in rivers, lakes or ponds.

                          Craftsmanship

        Local Craftsmanship developed in Kumaon instead of support from Kingdoms.
People used to produce clothing by themselves for their tiny needs.
Common people used to spin cotton and wool through Takli spinning wheel and used to make thread. The woolen thread was handed over to Koli (weavers) to make clothes through Chan, Ranch or Kargha (hand driven weaving machine).
           Danpur, Johar, Vyans, Chaudans, Darma and Askot were famous for woolen clothing and dressings. The woolen cloth makers used to import wool from Tibet or from Bhotiyas of today’s Pithoragarh. Woolen craftsmen from Danpur, Johar, Vyans, Chaudans, Darma and Askot used tp produce fine Kaline, Galeecha, Chogta, Thulma, Dumkar and these items were sold in markets Brahmandi, Bareli, Rampur and Lucknow. The later period Chand Kings started laving Tand taxes on weavers.
           Maximum people used to wear clothing as sheets of fibers from hemp and other fibers from plants as Bhimal. Single Sheet was the only way of dressing for majority of people. Bhangela (blanket from hemp), Kambal (woolen blanket) was also used for covering in night or in day.
               There was no major development in dressing techniques or dress making technique from Kaintura period till British took over Kumaon.

                        Utensils in Chand Kingdoms

         Majority of people were dependent on mud utensils, wood utensils or stone utensils. Metal utensils were luxury. No doubt, iron smiths or Lwar of village used to make iron appliances, copper smith or Tamta used to make metal appliances and utensils.
 Askot was famous for wood utensil making. Almora and Shringar was famous for copper vessels. The iron swords, Khang, Khunkri, Bhale, arrows were produced in Almora.
 The Satpura or Satbaduva tree was used for making paper. This paper was exported too to Tibet and planes. Kingdom orders were written on this tree paper besides copper inscriptions.
  In history and folklores, there is no mention of support for developing craftsmanship by Chand Kings.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 8/1/2014

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -242  
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
History Aspects of Water and Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Kumaon; History Aspects of Water and Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Bhabhar-Tarai Kumaon; History Aspects of Water and Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Nainital Kumaon; History Aspects of Water and Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Almora Kumaon; History Aspects of Water and Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Champawat Kumaon; History Aspects of Water and Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Bageshwar Kumaon; History Aspects of Water and Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Pithoragarh Kumaon; History Aspects of  woolen Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Askot Kumaon; History Aspects of woolen Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Johar Kumaon; History Aspects of Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Dorma, Vyans, Chaudans, Danpur Kumaon; History Aspects of wooden Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Askot Kumaon;