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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Friday, January 3, 2014

History of Feature of Court Administration in Chand Dynasty Rule

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
                                        
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 236

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti

                                      Salary Payment System
              The Highest cadre employees were provided Jagir (a few villages or region who used to pay tax to officers). Kumaon kingdom used to pay in cash to their officers as ‘Rojina’ as daily allowances etc.
   Many officers were provided village families who used to provide grains etc to officers. Th employees used to collect salary from Pragana officer against order or Rukka.
  Shakti Gusain fixed some villages whose tax was fixed for court employees.

                   Capitals of Chand Kings

       Abhay Chandra captured Champawat from Khasiya Raut in 1361 and established capital as Champawat.Bhishma Chandra planned to shift capital to Khagmarakot. Balo Kalyan Chandra shifted capital to Khagmarakot in1533. H e built a palace near Nail Pokhara. Slowly, forts, other palaces, court buildings, temples and individual houses were built there. Champawat was sub capital for fifty years. Later on the capital was shifted to Almora to defend Mal territory. From the beginning till 1790, Almora saw many murders of kings and administrators due to infighting among various groups.

                          Court
  The court or parliament used to be in a portion of palace. The princes, ministers, record keepers, army commanders, regional commanders or tax collectors used to be present in court. The king used to hear the matter and used to provide decision.
  In evening court was transformed into entertaining place or Majlish. Pauranik and Guru used to preach religious preaching. Dances, singer, and poets or scholars used to participate there for various activities. Elites and high cadre employees used to be there. Poets and artists used to show their arts for rewards from the King.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 3/1/2014

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -237  
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
History of Feature of Court Administration in Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon Kingdom; History of Feature of Court Administration in Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon Kingdom including Udham Singh Nagar region ; History of Feature of Court Administration in Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon Kingdom including Nainital region;  History of Feature of Court Administration in Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon Kingdom including Almora region; History of Feature of Court Administration in Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon Kingdom including Champawat region; History of Feature of Court Administration in Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon Kingdom including  Bageshwar region; History of Feature of Court Administration in Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon Kingdom including  Dwarhat region; History of Feature of Court Administration in Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon Kingdom including  Pithoragarh region; History of Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Champawat Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Bageshwar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Nainital Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Almora Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, North India; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, South Asia;