(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
Characteristics of Chand Rule in Kumaon
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 243
Origin of Aipan
The rock wall painting tradition had been found in Kumaon from prehistoric time. Lakhu Udyar and Lwethap are famous prehistoric rock painting examples in Kumaon.
Aipan is classic example of art of Kumaon. Aipan is derived from Sanskrit word ‘Alimpana’ that means to plaster or coat with. Other synonymous words for Aipan in India are Chauk Purana and ‘Alpana’. Some scholars state that ‘Aipan’ is derived from ‘Arpan’.
It seems that Aipan started from Katyuri period in Kumaon.
Aipan is art decoration on ground, wall, paper and cloths by drawing of various geometric and other figures of god/goddesses or nature.
The major raw materials for ‘Aipan’ are ochre or Geru and rice paste. Fir the object or ground is pasted by ochre and then the desired drawing is done by rice paste.
There are different forms of Aipan – Sarswati Chauki, Chamunda Hast Chauki, etc. The women create Aipan in many auspicious occasions.
The wood crafts were well developed in Kumaon from Katyuri period. The wood craftsmen used to carve drawing on Tun or Devdaru wood. The best artistic wood craft is seen on door of Bad Aditya temple of Katarmall.
The wood crafts could also be seen on old Tibari, Chhajja, Jangla. The artists used to carve images of nature, plants, Purnkumbh, animals, god, goddesses and other Hindi cionic images on wood columns.
No drawing Art
Chand kings did not sponsor drawing artists or painters. There are no paintings of Chand Kings and their armed or administrative ministers as found n Garhwal.
Music and Dance
Chand Kings followed Mogul culture and promoted Majlish culture where in night, dancers and musicians used to show their art. There were court dancers and court musicians. The Chnad Kings levied Tax as Bajniya on people for paying salaries to court dancers and musicians.
King Vijay Chandra was addicted to music, songs, dance and wine.
King Udyot Chandra built an entertainment hall in his palace.
King Jagat Chandra was sponsor of gambling and the gambling players.
King Devi Chandra was famous for sponsoring artists of music, dance. He built an entertainment building too.
The administrators Manik and Puran Mal Gaida were great lovers of music and female dancers.
There were teachers to teach dance, music for queens and princesses.
Kumaoni people also developed folk music and folk dance by their own.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -email@example.com 10/1/2014
Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
Kanti Kumar Nautiyal , Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun , Chaukhamba Prakash
Hema Uniyal Kumaon ke Mandir (Book and Cassette Disc)
Madan Jit Singh, Himalayan Arts
Krishna Chand Bhatt, Information about Thefts of Archeological Materials from Kumaon, Pahad
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -245
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
(Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
History review of Aipan, Wood Crafts, Paintings, Music-Dance in Kumaon in Chand Period; History review of Aipan, Wood Crafts, Paintings, Music-Dance in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon in Chand Period; History review of Aipan, Wood Crafts, Paintings, Music-Dance in Nainital Kumaon in Chand Period; History review of Aipan, Wood Crafts, Paintings, Music-Dance in Almora Kumaon in Chand Period; History review of Aipan, Wood Crafts, Paintings, Music-Dance in Champawat Kumaon in Chand Period; History review of Aipan, Wood Crafts, Paintings, Music-Dance in Bageshwar Kumaon in Chand Period; History review of Aipan, Wood Crafts, Paintings, Music-Dance in Pithoragarh Kumaon in Chand Period;