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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Thursday, January 16, 2014

Introduction to History of Garhwal from 1223-1804

 History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -1
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -246

                       ByBhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                    Garhwal Region or Kedarkhand:  an Introduction

 Garhwal region has following districts –
District --------------Area Sq Kilometer -----------Population in Lakhs 2011
Uttarkashi -------------  9016 ---------------------3.29
Chamoli Garhwal -----8032--------------------3.91
Rudraprayag    ----------1890 ------------------2.36
Tehri Garhwal ------   4080----------------6.16
Dehradun    ------------3038 ------------------------16.9
Pauri Garhwal   ------5399 ------------------------6.86
Haridwar   ---------------2360------------------19.27
  Kumaon Uttarakhand is in east of Garhwal region. Bijnor district of Uttar Pradesh is in south of Garhwal region. Saharanpur district of Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh are in west of Garhwal region.  Tibet of China is in north of Garhwal region.

                            Rule of Krachall

 In previous chapters of History of Uttarakhand (Katyuri period) the readers already read that Krachall ruled Uttarakhand including Garhwal in or around 1223. Kalchakra ruled on Uttarakhand through Mandlik or regional rulers (read History of Uttarakhand part -142).

              Hundreds of Rulers in Garhwal and Kumaon
       After Krachall or his successor’s rule (most probably 1250) the small kingdoms or Garhi or Garh emerged in Garhwal. The folklores of that period still exist in Garhwal and Kumaon.  The centralized rule of Krachall or successors was no more in Garhwal and Kumaon and regional rulers emerged as rulers of particular region called Garhi or Garh.  These regional rulers started fighting and more and more small Garh or forts (rulers) emerged in the scene.

            Garh or Forts in Garhwal in Thirteenth Century

            The rulers of these small regions used to build fort in high hills of the regions called as Gadh or Garh or Garhi. The rulers used to keep weapons, arms-ammunitions, army and families in the fort or Garhi. From their Garh owners used to rule nearby villages.  
             The fort used to be built inaccessible place at high hills and could be seen from distances. There used to arrangement of water and food articles. All roads towards Garh or fort were closed and only one road used to be open. The army used to watch that accessible road very rigorously.
              In many Garhi, there was not water source. In such types of Garh or fort, rain water stopped by mud or stone walls. Water was also reserved in Wood, stone or mud vessels. There were staircases from rivulets or canals to the fort as could be seen today in Bhairogadhi Langur, Pauri Garhwal.  There used to be tunnels to reach river or rivulets. The tunnels could be seen in Chandpurgarhi, Gujdugadhi and Lakhamandal Gadhi. These tunnels were to run away in safe place when Garh is in danger by attack from enemy.

            Numbers of Garh or Garhi in Garhwal
  Raturi and Rahul state that Panwar King Ajaypal won sixty two or fifty two Garh and included them into his kingdom. However, the numbers of Garhi was more than Raturi’s estimate.
 Region ---------------------- --------------------------- Names of Garhi ------------Numbers
1-North border ----- ------Gadhtang, Painkhanda,Dasholi ------------------------------4---
2-East Border ----- ----------------------Badhan, Chandpur,Chaud, Top
East Border ------------------------------------Ranigarh, Lohaba, Dhauna,Vangarh,
---------------------------------------------------------------------Kanda, Gujadu, Sawali ----------11
3-South Garhwal
 (Talla Salan, Gangasalan, Bhabhar, Narnedra nagr Dehradun)--- Mahabgadh, Baggadh
---------------------------------------------------------------------Ajmir Garh, Shrigurugarh,
-------------------------------------------------------------------Mavakot, Gadkot, Bhairongadh,
------------------------------------------------------------------ Ghughti, Dhangu
---------------------------------------------------------------------Badalpur, Laldhang, ChandiSatur,
--------------------------------------------------------------------Kolagarh, Shergarh, Nanorgarh
------------------------------------------------------------------Nalagadh, Veerbhadra, Mordhaj,
-------------------------------------------------------------Pathargarh,Kunaji, Ratan, kuili, Bharpur-24
4-West Border ----------------------Jorgarh, Biraltagarh, Silgarh, Mungragarh, SankariGarh
(Jaunpur, Mahasu, Shimla)--------------------------, Badkot,Dodrakwargadh, Ramigarh----------8
5-Mandakini valley----------------------------------Nagpur, Kandara
6- Upper East valley --------------------------Ulkagadh, Aidasu, Devalgarh, Nayalgarh,
(Devalgarh, Barhsyun, Chaundkot ) --------Kolligarh, Dhaunagarh,Bangarh, Kandagarh, --------------------------------------------------------------Chaundkot -----------------------------------------------9
7- Westren valley
(Udaypur, Kirtinagar, Chandravadani, Chilla-------------------------------------------------------------
Pratapnagar, Bhardar, Bhilang)-------------------------------- Uppu Garh, Maulyagarh, Rainkagarh, Bhagargadh
-------------------------------------------------------------------------Bhardar garh, Sangelagarh -------6
 Total Garh -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------64
There were many Garh or forts in Haridwar those were present before 1223 .
 There are folklores those mention following Garhi too-
Maluvakot, Amuvakot, Kalnikot, Ramoligadh, Lohanigarh, Katyurgarh, Chandgarh, kalavatikot, Nandanikot, Dharnigadhi, Malsigadhi, Kotligadhi, Bhanikot, Chandikot, etc . There is no history records of those Garh mentioned in folklores.

****Read about more about Garhi administration in next chapter…


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 14/1/2014 Makar Sankranti

                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India  
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter            
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -247  
Xx
History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Udaypur Patti Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Dhangu Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Pauri Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Chamoli Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Tehri Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Dehradun Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Haridwar Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Garhwal kingdom in Bijnor; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Garhwal Kingdom in Himachalpradesh; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Garhwal Kingdom in Saharanpur;