(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
(History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 239
According to folk sayings, there were 68 taxes in Chand Dynasty period in Kumaon – 36 Rakam or taxes, 32 Kalam or payables. However, the records for tax or payables are on for nineteen taxes.
The receivables or taxes could be divided into main four divisions –
1-Land tax- Land tax was called ‘Sirti’, ‘Rakam’ or ‘Mamla’ and was payable only on cash. The tax payable to state store by grains was called ‘Baikar’. If instead of grains the cash was paid it was called ‘Kut’. Baikar was paid in form of rice or wheat only and not coarse grains.
The original tax names in Kaintura regime got changed time to time and were influenced by Mogul court nomenclature.
2-People Cause Tax- The tax were - ‘Katak’ for army salary, Sanga tax on river; ‘Jhuliya’ for river bridges; ‘Khani-Khapini’ for court laborers; ‘Manga’ tax was for contingency on the kingdom.
3- Salary for Court employees- There were taxes as Kaminchari or Sayanachari for salary for regional administrators; ‘Garkha-Negichari’ for low cadre state employees; ‘Sahu’ tax for court employees, ‘Rntgali’ for record keeping emplyess.
4- Tax pr payable for King family- Such taxes were –‘Ghodiyalo’ for king horses; ‘Kiryalo’ for dogs; ‘Bhukdiya’ for ostlers; ‘Bajniya’ for court dancers.
Other types of taxes
Najarana- When any person used to meet King, queen or prince, the person was supposed to pay a tribute as Bhent or Najarana.
Bhent – When the King or King family went for roaming in any region, the court emplyess used to collect ‘Bhent ‘ (gifts) from villagers.
Ghee Kar – The family was supposed to pay Ghee Kar on each milking animal.
Bhag- Bhag was the name of tax on Water-Mills (Gharat)
Tand Kar- The weavers were taxed as Tand kar.
Charai Kar- It was atax on those who used to come with their animals for grazing in Bhabhar.
Mund kar – it was additional tax on each family members.
Chulh Kar – This was tax on each family.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -email@example.com 4/1/2014
Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -240
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
(Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Kumaon; History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Pithoragarh Kumaon; History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Champawat Kumaon; History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Bageshwar Kumaon; History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Almora Kumaon; History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Nainital Kumaon; History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Bhabhar Kumaon; History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Tarai Kumaon; History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Kumaon, Himalaya;