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Sunday, January 5, 2014

A Historical Perspective on No Support for Agriculture Development from Chand Kings in Kumaon

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
                                        
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 238

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti

                                         Land Use
                From the beginning the agriculture process in Uttarakhand had been specific than plains of India.
                      In India especially in medieval period the soil classification was designed for tax purpose. In Kumaon too, the soil or land was classified as per fertility (unit patho –ser –mano etc). In Kumaon, the land was measured by how much seed is sown in a particular land. Still, the past system of measuring land exists in rural Uttarakhand of hills.  According to seed sowing capacity the land was taxed.
             No Support for Land Fertility Enhancement
 Atkinson, Ram Datt Tripathi , B.D Pandey and Dabral are main historians of Kumaon. This author did not find any details about that Kings from Chand dynasty were interested in increasing fertility of land under their rule.
                 If at all, the agriculture land was developed it was because of people and not by administrative acts of the Kings.
            This author did not find any rough paragraph in the history books of above writers about Chand kings or administration acting anything about organic fertilizers.
                No research orientation for new seeds
           This author did not find any particular evidence that Chand kings had any system for seed productivity development.

              Sinchai Bhagwan Bharose or Rain depending Irrigation

             There is no evidence found that there was any support from kingdom for developing irrigation. Barring Tarai –Bhabhar region, there is no mention in history write ups about canal making in Chand kingdom.

                       Milk Producing Animals  
    Chand kings were interested in taking tax on milk producing animals but there is no mention on history books that Chand kings supported milk production.

                            Horticulture

 Barring a couple of Kings as Udyot Chandra, no king shown interest in horticulture development. Udyot Chandra (1678-1698) developed mango gardens in Bhabhar –Tarai region.

                     Forest Produces

   The Chand kings used to levy taxes on forest produces but there is no record that Chand kings supported growth of medicinal plants or forestry for people’s benefits or for enhancing exports. No doubt, there was state income from forests and forest produces.
   Farmers were afraid of increasing agriculture produce as King’s administration used to levy ore and more tax.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 6/1/2014

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -239  
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
A Historical Perspective on No Support for Agriculture Development from Chand Kings in Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for Agriculture Development from Chand Kings in Pithoragarh Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for Agriculture Development from Chand Kings in Champawat Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for Agriculture Development from Chand Kings in Bageshwar Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for Agriculture Development from Chand Kings in Almora Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for Agriculture Development from Chand Kings in Nainital Kumaon; Historical Perspective on  Support for Agriculture Development from Chand Kings in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for Milk production increase from Chand Kings in Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for Forest produces Development from Chand Kings in Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for medicinal plants growth from Chand Kings in Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for irrigation Development in hills from Chand Kings in Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for trade Development from Chand Kings in Kumaon;