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Tuesday, July 30, 2013

Early Medieval Asian Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 112

   Early Medieval   Asian History of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) -23

          (Early Asian Medieval History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))
                          (Early Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

                                              ByBhishma Kukreti


                        Powerful defense mechanism of Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Early Medieval Period

                   The Katyuri kings were famous for their large armed forces.  Defense mechanism of Katyuri Kings Kartikeypur (early medieval period) was superior in contemporary competition. These kings defended their territories for two and half centuries. The Khajuraho inscription states that the Chandel King Harsh was pleased by powerful contemporary Khasa King. The Katyuri Kings were able to defense their vulnerable borders due to powerful strategic defensive methods only.

                              Four Army Battalions Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Early Medieval Period
 The army of Katyuri of Kartikeypur (early medieval period) had main four army divisions
Padatik Army - The infantry was called Padatik.
Cavalry   Army- The cavalry armed force was called Ashwarohi Bal and the Army in charge of cavalry was called Ashwabaladhikrit.

War Elephant Army: The war elephant army was named as ‘Hasti bala’. The in charge for war elephant army was positioned as Hastibaladhikrit.

War Camel Cavalry and Artillery (Army) - The name for war camel army was Ustrabal. The war camel army in charge was called ‘Ustrabaladhikrit’.

In Charge of Three cavalries- The in charge of war horse army; war elephant army; war camel army was called ‘Hastyashoshtrabaladhikrit’.
  The elephant and camel armed forces show that Katyuri kings had rule over not only plains of Uttarakhand but in today’s western part of Uttar Pradesh or the Katyuri kings had powerful dense  mechanism against kingdoms of Indian plains
 The King was supreme of all armed force and the Kings used to lead the war. The Laitshur and Subhikshraj inscriptions suggest that Ishtagandev beheaded elephants of enemies.  

                Border Defense Mechanism in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeypur
  
            The Katyuri Kings of early medieval period were very much aware about border defense mechanism as Chadra Gupta Maurya (lalitshur inscription).

Prantpal- The Border defense in charge was called Prantpal or Border Security in charge.

Ghattpal- The security in charge of Mountain Passes of border region was called Ghattpal.

Vartampal- The Border Road Security in charge was called Vartampal.

Tarpati-  The security and tax officer for river crossing  and security was called Tarpati. All these security personnel were keeping eyes on unwanted and spies of other kingdoms and rebellions.

                     Police Force in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeypur (Early Medieval Period)

              The Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur or of early Medieval Age were cautious for internal security too. There was separate department for internal security.
Dandik or Khangik – These police officers were to protect the state and public or people’s properties.

Doshparadhik- These officers were for capturing the criminals.

Dusadhyasadhanik _ This officer was in charge of officers those were engaged in researches on conspiracies in the kingdom. Spying and stopping spying into kingdom were the job of this department.

Chorodharanik- Chorodharanik used capture thieves and dacoits.

Dandpashik, Mahadandnayak and Dandnayak- Officers Mahadandnayak and Dandnayak were high level police officers for internal security. There were strong rules for punishing criminals those oppress the citizens.

                Security for Tourists in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeypur (Early Medieval Period)

          There were necessary internal security management for protecting citizens and tourists.
           The inflow of pilgrim tourists in Uttarakhand was more and the government used to manage their securities.


                          Facilities for Tourists in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeypur (Early Medieval Period)


           It is obvious that tourism was one of the major sources of income in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeypur period.
  There were shelter houses for tourists and on the road the government arranged for drinking water (Pyau).




Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 31/7/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
                           
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -113
Early Asian Medieval History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued…24
        (Oriental Early Medieval History (740-1100 AD to be continued…)

                                        References
A1- Agrawal, D.P., J.S Kharkwal, 1998, Central Himalayas: an archeological, linguistic and cultural synthesis 
1-Atkinson, E.T. 1974 (new edition), 1974, Kumaon Hills
1A- Adhikari, Suryamani, 1997, The Khasa Kingdom
1B- Chandola, Khemanand, 1987, Across Himalayas through Ages: a study of relations between central Himalayas and western Tibet
2--Chaurasiya, Radhey Shyam, 2002, History of Ancient India: Earliest time to 1000AD
3--Dabral, Shiv Prasad , 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag-3 Pages 429-513)
3A- Elliot and Dowson, History of Indian (2nd part)
4--Handa, O.C. 2002, history of Uttaranchal, Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi 27, page 22-44
4A- Joshi, M.C., 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) Himalaya: an essay in historical anthropology 
5-Linrothe, Rob, 1999, Ruthless Compassion: Wrathful Deities in Early Indo Tibetan Esoteric Buddhist Art
6-Mishra, Nityanand, Source Materials of Kumaon History 
7-Mishra Baldev Prasad, Nepal ka Itihas
8- Pandey, B.D, 1937, new edition (1990), Kumaon ka Itihas
9- Pandey, Ram Niwas, 1997, Making of Modern Nepal, page 170
10-Rawat, Ajay S., 19 Garhwal Himalayas: A Study in Historical Perspective 
11-Satyankritan, Rahul, Garhwal
11A-Saklani, Dinesh Prasad, 1998, Ancient Communities of The Himalayas
11B- Tripathi, Ramdatt , Katyur ka Itihas
 12-Notes on Archeological Aspects of Uttarakhand: ascidehraduncircle.in/uttrakhand.html
13-Indian Archeology: A review, (edited by D. Mitra) 1979-80
14- Epigraphia  Indica 1982, Vol. XIII

Xxx                              xx
Notes on Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Chamoli Garhwal; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Rudraprayag Garhwal; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Tehri Garhwal;  Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Uttarkashi Garhwal; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Pauri Garhwal; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Dehradun Garhwal; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Haridwar; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Doti Nepal; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Pithoragarh Kumaon ; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Dwarhat Kumaon ; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Bageshwar  Kumaon ; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Champawat Kumaon ; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Almora  Kumaon ; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Nainital Kumaon ; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon