Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -29
History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -218
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -466
By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
Hardwicke described about weapons of Garhwal army as Guns, Arrow-Bow; sword - shield. Father Azevedo stated about canon too with Garhwal army. Maularam described the following offensive and defensive weapons with Garhwali Army –
1-Sheild and Kambalposh
2-Arrow-Bow, Spear –Javelin
3- Sword, Khadg, Khanda , Farsi , Farsa, Dangara, Bank, Pata , Tavar (All are types of axes)
4- Various guns and canons
5- Dhal, Batfar, Tuda-Tobad (Shields)
Kavach, Bakhtar (Shield)
Since, arrow-bow, sword and spear were in use for fighting the battle/wars, shield was an important part of defensive weapon. When Ghamnd Singh killed Kriparam Dobhal in Garhwal court, Dobhal was putting on Kavachdani or atype of shiedl.
Kvach (Bakhtar) was made by fine iron sheet and was put on head, back, chest and arms. Iron cap, iron neck cap and iron gloves were used for protecting head, neck and hands respectively. Kavachdani was made by fine net of iron and was put on as shirt. Historian found a part of shield on Kotdwara-Dhad road and was supposed to be the shield of Rama Khanduri.
Soldiers and elite men used to put on a Kachadani (as shirt and Pajama) made by thickly cotton to protect arrow and sword. The head was covered by any layers of silk.
Arrow and Bow
Till nineteenth century, the Garhwal, Kumaun and Nepal Army used to use Arrow and Bow for war. The four feet bow was made by horn, wood, or iron and the rope was made by silk, leather. The two and quarter feet arrows were made by bamboo with iron points.
There were various types of swords and axes used for war. Their names were Talvar, Kulhadi, farsa, Patt or Ptta, Khanda, Teg, Khadga, Tabar, Jabar, Dangara etc.
ks, Guns, Flintlock, Canons
Some time before, Gorakha attack, Garhwal Army started using gun powder weapons. Horses and human were used to carry heavy gun weapons.
Miscellaneous Weapons and Defense Mechanism
Various shields were made by leather of animals as cow, Neelgay, buffalo, elephants, rhinos etc. Spears were made by bamboo with sharp iron point. Tuda, Tobada, Patela, Batfar, wood plates were used to protect from arrows from High land while reaching to any fort.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, firstname.lastname@example.org/10/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -467
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued
Notes on South Asian Modern Period History of Garhwal; South Asian Modern Period History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian Modern Period History of Chamoli Garhwal; South Asian Modern Period History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; South Asian Modern History of Tehri Garhwal; South Asian Modern History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; South Asian Modern Period History of Dehradun, Garhwal; Modern History of Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period History of Manglaur, Haridwar; South Asian Modern Period History of Rurkee Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal