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Monday, October 6, 2014

Copper and Iron Mines in Garhwal of Pal /Shah Period

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -12 

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -201       
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -449 

                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                                Minerals
                 Garhwal had been fortunate for having ample water, forest, flora, fauna and mineral resources. There were mines for iron, copper, graphite, plumbus, shilajit,. People used to extract gold dust from river sand.  Garhwal used to get substantial income from iron and copper mines. There was demand for iron and copper utensils in Haridwar, Kankhal and Nazibabad.
                     Copper Mines in Garhwal
                 The copper mines of Garhwal were larger than Kumaon. Even the productivity of Garhwal mines was more than Kumaon
  The major copper mines were in Dhanpur and Dobari of Devalgadh region. The copper mine strip of Dhanpur was fifty feet long and one inch to one feet wide. There was eight months continuous works in those mines. The Dobari mines were submerged into debris due to earthquake at the time of Pradyuman Shah.
           There was copper mine in Agarseera of Lobha region.
Chaumriya mine and Raja ki Khan of Pokhari were famous copper mines.
            There were copper mines in Thal, Danda, Tal, Pungela and Kharna. The King used to take half of copper for making coins.
                             Iron Mines in Garhwal
  There were iron parities available in Painkhanda region. Hematite iron ores were available in Rajbunga mine of Soli Chandpur.
There were iron mines in Khush or Chandpur; Talli and Talli Kalifat of Chandpur; Bhukanda  Jakhtoli , Gilet and Hat of Nagpur; Dungrakhan of Bacchansyun; Peepli and Dandatoli of Idiyakot and in Lobha and Paino regions.
    The iron mines of Bacchansyun were famous for producing swords, Khunkri, Axes, Darati (sickle).
                      Poor Method for Mining in Garhwal

  The mining methods were old and very low productive. There was less income due to poor mining system.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com6/10/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -450
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
XX                     
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period  History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal; South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty ,  to be continued
XX
History Aspects of Copper and Iron Mines Garhwal of Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Copper and Iron Mines Garhwal of Pal /Shah Period in context Haridwar, Garhwal History; History Aspects of Copper and Iron Mines Garhwal of Pal /Shah Period in context Dehradun Garhwal History; History Aspects of Copper and Iron Mines Garhwal of Pal /Shah Period in context Uttarkashi Garhwal History; History Aspects of Copper and Iron Mines Garhwal of Pal /Shah Period in context Tehri Garhwal History; History Aspects of Copper and Iron Mines Garhwal of Pal /Shah Period in context Rudraprayag  Garhwal History; History Aspects of Copper and Iron Mines Garhwal of Pal /Shah Period in context Chamoli Garhwal History; History Aspects of Copper and Iron Mines Garhwal of Pal /Shah Period in context Pauri Garhwal History;