Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -24
History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -213
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -461
By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
The following materials of Garhwal were sold in Wholesale Markets (Mandi) of Bhabhar (Kotdwara and Bijnor) –
Farmers used to export wheat, barley, paddy, Japanese Barnyard millets, Finger Millets, Hog Millets, Italian Millets, Amaranths; Ogal; Black gram, lentils, horse gram, Souabean; mustard types of grains and pulses. Other agro products as Turmeric, ginger, Taro were exported from Garhwal. People used to export fruits as Fig, Himalyan Malberry, Berries, lemon, pumpkins, nuts, oranges etc. People also grew Opium for export.
Charas was commonly used by Baba, Mahatma and People used to gro hemp for Charas and fiber. Hemp fiber had demand in Bhabhar (including Bijnor), Haridwar and Rishikesh.
People used to produce Ghee, Honey and nurture animals as horses, Bull, Buffalo, cows, goats, etc for Trade.
People used to collect various spices as black cumin, Indian bay leaves, Hill Cinnamon, Indian gooseberry, Nirbishi, Mari, Aracha, Chirayta etc from forests and used to export.
Forest honey had good demand in plains.
Te wood was export from Garhwal in huge quantity.
Animals and animal produces were also exported.
Medical herbs had very good demand and were exported in raw or medicine forms.
House Hold Products
People used to export woolen produces, wooden articles, metal vessels and metal weaponsetc, products of Bamboo species, paper, bark and skin.
Iron ores, copper ores, borax, salt , gold dust, shilajit, chalk mud, color soil, sankhiya etc were exported in volumes.
People used to sell children, widows to Marcha of Tibet and Rohillas.
1-Food produces as Gud, suger; Supari, coconut, spices of south India, tobacco, tobacco leaves, fruits and flowers.
2- Dress and dresses materials was imported as cotton was not grown in hills.
3- Various colors
4-Metals and metal produces
5-Ornaments- various ornaments
Miscellaneous-– guns, gun powders, paper, ink etc
As far as Garhwalis were concerned there was no casts of trading communities. Individuals used to act as traders. Tibetans, Marcha had trading communities.
In later stage, Muslim traders especially for leather works settled in some part of Garhwal especially in Shrinagar, Bhabhar.
In rural region, Barter system was the main source of exchanges of materials, services and consultation.
There was State mint for Silver coins or Timasi in Shrinagar. Four Garhwali or Gorkhali Timasi equal to one Garhwali rupee and five Timasi was equal to one Farukhabadi rupee.
Spain dollar and other coins used to come to Garhwal too.
Copper mint used to produce Taka. One Timasi was equal to ten taka.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, email@example.com/10/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -462
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
Notes on South Asian Modern Period History of Garhwal; South Asian Modern Period History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian Modern Period History of Chamoli Garhwal; South Asian Modern Period History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; South Asian Modern History of Tehri Garhwal; South Asian Modern History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; South Asian Modern Period History of Dehradun, Garhwal; Modern History of Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period History of Manglaur, Haridwar; South Asian Modern Period History of Rurkee Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period History of Haridwar district, History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty , to be continued