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Monday, October 6, 2014

Distribution/ Division of Land Ownership, Land Revenue System in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Dynasty

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -11  

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -200      
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -448 


                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                 Eldest brother used to be the owner on record books. Other younger brothers used to be the equal partners of the land. The land was divided according to number of brothers and not according to number of mothers. Where the wife or wives were same for all brothers, there land was divided by number of brothers too.  Such Land division was called ‘Bhai Bant’
      Many times, the person used to divide land equally among his wives and not according to numbers of sons and was called as ‘Sautiya Bant’.
    A special portion of land was offered to eldest son as ‘Jethali’. The right of onwenriship on land was offered to only sons of real Wife (Asal) and not sons (Kam Asal Putra) from keeps or lower caste wives.
             A little land was offered to son from kam Asal wife (widow, Dhanti, prostitute, Harijan). In Khas Rajput all sons were divided land whether they are from any wife.

                                  Land Revenue System
                   The main revenue for    Kingdom was land revenue. The tax was as per fertile and non fertile land.
 The revenue for Garhwal Kingdom was around two lakh Garhwali rupees.

                68 Types of Tax in Garhwal Kingdom
                     
  According to folklores, Garhwal Kingdom used to collect ‘Chhatis Rakam’ and Battis Kalam’ or taxes. That means there were sixty eight types of taxes.  
 In fact, all taxes were not collected annually but apart from annual tax, the King used to collect taxes in bad or good times too.
Rakam or Mamla land tax- This was land tax collected in cash.
Baikar tax- Baikar was taken in the form of grains.
Kut tax- Kut tax was in cash in exchange of grains.
                  Social Welfare Taxes
Katak Tax- Katak tax was taken for increasing or maintaining army.
Jhuliya tax – This tax was collected from those crossing rivers and using Jhula (Rope Bridge).
Khini Khapini Tax- This Khini Khapini or Kuli Begar tax was when Kingdom used to build any project or labor works.
Manga Tax- When the Kingdom used to be in danger, Kingdom used to collect Manga tax.
                             Taxes for Kingdom Offices

           Kaminchari or Sayanchari taxes- These taxes were for paying salaries to different top brass officers.
Garkha Negichari Taxes- This tax was for paying salaries to land management officers.
Sahu or Ratangali Taxes – This tax was collected for paying salaries of court /judges, record keepers, accountant etc.
                     Taxes for maintaining King Families
 Ghodiyalo Tax- This tax was collected for maintaining horses for King Families.
Kukaryalo Tax- Kukryalo tax was for the marinating the dogs of King and his families.
Bhukdiya Tax- Bhukdiya tax was for maintaining Kingdom horse wranglers
Bajniyan Taxe- The tax was collected for Dancers of the King
 There were other taxes time to time taken by Kingdom as Syundi Suppa kar, Chulha kar, Vitt Kar, had Kar, Hal Kar, Gaj Kar, Ain kar etc.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com5/10/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -449
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
XX                     
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period  History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal; South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty ,  to be continued
XX
Distribution of Land Ownership Land Revenue System in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Dynasty in context Garhwal History; Distribution of  Land Ownership ,  Land Revenue System in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Dynasty in context Haridwar, Garhwal History; Distribution of Land Ownership ,  Land Revenue System in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Dynasty in context Pauri Garhwal History; Distribution of Land Ownership ,  Land Revenue System in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Dynasty in context Chamoli Garhwal History; Distribution of Land Ownership ,  Land Revenue System in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Dynasty in context Rudraprayag Garhwal History; Distribution of Land Ownership ,  Land Revenue System in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Dynasty in context Tehri  Garhwal History; Distribution of Land Ownership ,  Land Revenue System in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Dynasty in context Uttarkashi Garhwal History; Distribution of Land Ownership ,  Land Revenue System in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Dynasty in context Dehradun , Doon Valley Garhwal History;