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Friday, October 17, 2014

Transportation and Trades in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -21 

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -210     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -458 
                                     Garhwali Paintings
         The unapproachable, unreachable roads were blessing in disguise for Garhwal, Himachal and Kumaon Kingdoms. Due to inaccessible roads and difficult terrine, the outside invaders were failure to capture Garhwal Kingdom for centuries. Even the Timure, Sultan, Rohilla, Mughal emperor armies were failure to invade Garhwal beyond Dehradun or Bijnor (Bhabhar of Old Garhwal).
               The people used to walk on foot. The officers, kings used to ride on horse or Dandi / Pinus/Palki. The King used to ride on elephant in Shrinagar only. Bhotiya or Tibetan Horses were more suitable for hill roads and plains as well.  There for the people used to breed Bhotiya or Tibetan horses. Mules were used for taking load. Donkeys were also used only in plains of Garhwal.
                        Goods Transportation Media

     People used camel as goods transportation medium in Bhabhar, Haridwar including Bijnor. Camels were major source of GoodsTransportation in the rout of from Haridwar to Laldhang, Kotdwar, Kashipur, Ramnagar and Bijnor to Haridwar and Kotdwara.
  In Hill regions, people used horses, sheep, goat as medium of goods transportation. Mostly, people used to carry load by themselves on Knadi, Ghodi, Jhaba, Thupri, Bokho etc. Kandi or load vessels were made by bamboo (ringal), hemp, Bheemal.
           The army ammunition, weapons, food was also transported by the above means.
  Bags were made of hemp, Bheemal fiber, woolen fiber and goat skin or goat body.

                 Medium of River Crossing
  Major ports on Ganga River were Badahat, Dunda, Shrinagar, Vyschatti, Mohanchatti ot Fulchatti, Mahdev Chatti, Chandighat (Rishikesh). Kolagarh on Ramganga, Banghat on Nayar were ports on other Rivers. Here people used to cross the Rivers. The medium of crossing were Boat, Mashak (Leather bag); Dunda (dongi), Pitcher. Dhunar were the people to drive there appliances. Semal wood was used to make small boat or Dongi.
                 Jhula or Sanga Bridges on Rivers
   State used to construct or arrange bridge works. In other cases villagers used to make or construct bridges on rivers. Kingdom used to collect Sanga or Jhula tax for crossing rivers.
 First and old method of making bridges was to fall the logs and tress on the river.
  Jhula or rope way bridges were also built by the State. The Dhunar used to pull the rope for crossing and used to get agriculture land from the Kingdom. There was one Jhula in Lakshman Jhula, Two in Devprayag. There were Jhula bridges in Dunda, Barahat, Bhatwadi, Shrinagar, Chhinka, Vishnuprayag etc and in Neeti Valley.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com15/10/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -459
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
XX                     
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period  History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal; South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period History of Haridwar district, History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty ,  to be continued
XX
Transportation and Trades in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; Transportation and Trades in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period in context Uttarkashi Garhwal History; Transportation and Trades in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period in context Dehradun Garhwal History; Transportation and Trades in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period in context Haridwar Garhwal History; Transportation and Trades in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period in context Pauri Garhwal History; Transportation and Trades in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period in context Chamoli Garhwal History; Transportation and Trades in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period in context Rudraprayag Garhwal History; Transportation and Trades in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period in context Tehri Garhwal History;