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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

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Friday, October 10, 2014

Economic Plants / Flora and Water Resources in Garhwal Kingdom of Pal /Shah Era

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -14 

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -203      
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -451 

                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
   The south Garhwal and Haridwar had dense forests of Sal, Shesam, Khair, Ber, bans, Dhak and various grass. The alpine region had gymnosperm all over Garhwal.
 The people exported forest produces as Furniture wood, bamboo, coal, catechu, Lakh, resins, ropes, fibers.
  Herbs were also exported from Garhwal.
          Chungi Ghar or Export Levy offices
  There were Chungi Ghar or Tax collections Offices in Kotdwara for Bhabhar region.
There were Chungighar in Kansaro, Mohan and Timli in export through Dehradun regions.
The forests were sold to contractors by the Kingdom annually or periodically.

                          Water Resources
                Barring selling Ganga water, big rivers had no use for Garhwal. Big Rivers were offering pilgrim places for Garhwal.
  Smaller rivers and rivulets were more beneficial to people of Garhwal. Rivulets and smaller rivers were source of irrigation and fishing. Big river were also good source for Fishing. Water mills were erected at the bank of smaller rivers and rivulets. The water mills near Shrinagar used to work for twenty for hours.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com8/10/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -452
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
XX                     
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period  History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal; South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty ,  to be continued
XX
Economic Plants / Flora and Water Resources in Garhwal Kingdom of Pal /Shah Era; Economic Plants / Flora and Water Resources in Garhwal Kingdom of Pal /Shah Era in contest Pauri Garhwal History; Economic Plants / Flora and Water Resources in Garhwal Kingdom of Pal /Shah Era in contest Chamoli Garhwal History; Economic Plants / Flora and Water Resources in Garhwal Kingdom of Pal /Shah Era in contest Rudraprayag Garhwal History; Economic Plants / Flora and Water Resources in Garhwal Kingdom of Pal /Shah Era in contest Tehri Garhwal History; Economic Plants / Flora and Water Resources in Garhwal Kingdom of Pal /Shah Era in contest Uttarkashi Garhwal History; Economic Plants / Flora and Water Resources in Garhwal Kingdom of Pal /Shah Era in contest Dehradun Garhwal History; Economic Plants / Flora and Water Resources in Garhwal Kingdom of Pal /Shah Era in contest Haridwar, Garhwal History;