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Monday, October 6, 2014

Land Ownership (Khaikar, Kaini, Sirtan etc) in Garhwal Kingdom in Pal /Shah Period

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -9

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -198      
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -446 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
    Broadly, the landowner was called Thatwan in Garhwal Kingdom (at least around Mughal Period and till British came).
Khaykar or Khaikar – The land cultivators or farmers who were settled on the land of Thatwan were called ‘Khaykar or Khaikar’. Till ‘Khaikar’ was able to pay tribute /tax to Thatwan could not disown the ownership of ‘Khaikar’.  Before, Thatwan used to come in process, farmers used to pay tax to the state and after Thatwan getting land from the government; Khaykar had to pay tax to Thatwan.
Besides, taxes, Padhan (village chief or main land owner)  and other owners used to offer personal tribute to Thatwan.
Khurni or Kaini- The Thatwan was also free to settle farmers in his own land. Those new farmers settled after Thatwan were called ‘Khurni o r Kaini’.  Kaini was in case servants or slave (?) of Thatwan. The Khurni or Kaini were supposed to do house works and many other personal works of Thatwan or Kbadjedar. Khaini had to shave his head in case there is death in the family of Thatwan. There was state punishment for Khaini in case of their disobedience of Thatwan.
                          Transfer of Land Ownership
  The court used to offer land on occasion of Relgious purpose (sankalp) , Raut ( Dfence personnel) or Jagir to Thatwan and used to have copper inscriptions for the purpose and court used to keep these orders in the treasury. King had right to dismiss the ownership of Thatwan. Raut or Jagir was temporary ownership and the King used to dismiss ownership after the Thatwan was of no use for the Kingdom.
       Usually, Kind avoided dismissing the land ownership of Sankalp.
         Many times, King used to disown the Thatwan’s position and Thatwan used to own the land but used to pay tax to the Kingdom.
 If any Thatwan was not interested to have Thatwan land (that was tax free), Thatwan used to come to court and used bring  soil and pebbles and used to keep an ana or Dhela on pebble for getting permission to be away from Thatwan position.
 Thatwan, Kanjedar were free to transfer their land to their daughter in law and Dharm Putra (adopted Son).  

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com3/10/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -447
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period  History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal; South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty ,  to be continued