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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Wednesday, August 22, 2012

Place of Ghazals /Gazals/Gajal in Garhwali Literature


Bhishma Kukreti

[Notes on Ghazals /Gazals in language; Ghazlas/Gazals in Garhwali language; Ghazlals/Gazals in Uttarakhandi language; Ghazals/Gazals in Mid Himalayan language; Ghazals/Gazals in Himalayan language; Ghazls/Gazals in North Indian regional language; Ghazals/Gazals in Indian regional language; Ghazals/Gazals in South Asian language; Ghazals/Gazals in Asian regional language; Ghazals/Gazals in English language; Ghazals/Gazals in Urdu language; Ghazals/Gazals in Hindi language; Ghazals/Gazals in Marathi  language]
  Wikipedia states that Ghazal is poetic form structuring of rhyming couplet and refrain with each line sharing same meter.
  Ghazal is main poetic form of Urdu language. Urdu language brought Ghazals in the literature. Ghazlas came in existence in Indian around eleventh and twelfth centuries and spread all over south Asia. Sufism   plays a great role in Ghazal becoming famous and part of poetries in various regions and languages.
  The Ghazals are popular in many languages as in English too as under
My rivals for your love – you’ve invited them all
This is mere insult, this no farewell tonight
(Agha Shaihid Ali, (Real Ghazlas in English, 2000)
  There is tradition of Ghazals in Hindi language. Credit goes to famous Hindi poet Dushyant Kumar for popularizing in modern Hindi literature. Dusyant Kumar (1931-1975) took out Ghazals from Love subject a connected Ghazals to real social issues.  
आज यह दीवार पर्दों कि तरह हिलने लगी
शर्त लेकिन  थी कि ये  बुनियाद हिलनी चाहिए 
 There are Ghazal makers in Marathi and an example of Ghazal in Marathi is as
झुकवली ती मान मी , जी ताठ होती 
हाय माझ्याशीच   अंती गाठ होती 
   In Garhwali literature, the records state that Netra Singh Aswal started writing Ghazals and popularizing them, first time there is mention about Gazlas and their criticism by Rajendra Dhashmana in introductory Garhwali  poetry collection ‘Dhanga se Sakshtakar’ (1988) by poet Netra Singh Aswal. Iminent Garhwali drama playwright Dhashmana names ‘Ghazlas’ as ‘Ganjeli ‘poem. Ganjeli means pestle. Pestle (Moosal) has three parts – upper part is necessary but not important, middle part is to hold by hands and the lowest part that has metal ring is very important for pounding the cereal in mortar.  Dhashmana states that In Ghazlas also the first two parts of poem are important for form purpose, third part is to push the poem and last part is most important part of Ghazlas for explaining the reality.  
    Urdu Ghazals did not influence any Garhwali Ghazlas maker. However, Dushyant Kumar the famous Hindi Ghazal maker influenced all Garhwali Ghazlas makers.  Madhu Sudan Thapliyal (2002) accepts that Dusyant Kumar influenced him (though he studied prominent Urdu Ghazlas makers Ghalib, Meer, Dag, Faij, Jigarand Basheer Badr . Madan Duklan accepted that he and other Garhwali language makers were influenced by Ghazlas of Dushyant Kumar. Famous Garhwali literature critic Virendra Panwar vouches that there is effects of Dushyant Kumar on Garhwali Ghazlas. The reason is very simple that Garhwalis are unable reading Urdu script and by enlarge, Garhwali villages are without Muslims or Punjabis who write, speak Urdu the most.  Another aspect is that Ghazlas have different vocal and creative concept than traditional Garhwali poetry. That is the reason Garhwali critic Bhagwati Prasad Nautiyal bluntly discards Ghazlas in Garhwali (Chitthi Patri –note on Harvi Harvi).
  As far as Garhwali Gazlas are concerned, Garhwali Gazlas are less of love subject barring the Gazlas of Madan Duklan, Uma Bhatt , Mahendr Rana
तुमारि नजर का हम  वन  हकदार  नि छा
भले दुनया मा हमारा कदरदार कम नि छा  (Uma Bhatt)
The following Ghazlas of various Garhwali Ghazal makers will show that there are social issues in Garhwali Ghazals but with varied subjects
मधु सुदन थपलियाल  गजल Ghazla by Madhu Suudan Thapliyal
धारा -पंदेरा,  घाट -राठ  जमिगे सिंवाल़ू
पाणि से अनमोल छन यी रुपयों की खाणी
 Madhu Sudan Thapliyal created maximum Ghazals in Garhwali and he is the only Garhwali Ghazal maker who published exclusive Ghazal collection ‘Harvi Harvi
मदन डुकलाण  गजल Ghazlas by Madan Duklan
Madan Duklan uses Ghazals for developing Garhwali poetry.
कुछ भितरों लोग कळेजी छौंकणा छन
 बाकी चौछ्वड़ी पेट सबका धौंकणा छन I
 

 नी  क्वी गैल्या मेरीमंजिल बि नी ,
 खुट्टा छन  कि आस मा ये दौड़ना छन I
 
वीरेन्द्र पंवार की गंजेळी कविता (गजल) Ghazlas by Virendra Panwar
क्वी हाल नी दिखेणा चुचौं कुछ करा
पौड़ छन  पिछेणा चुचौं कुछ करा
Virendra Panwar feels that nothing is wrong in bringing newer and contemporary forms /structure in Garhwali poetry for modernizing Garhwali literature
नेत्र सिंह असवालै गज़ल Ghazal by Netra singh Aswal
कखड़ी लगीं  ये परगुदड़ी लगीं  क्या 
न्यल्दु  क्या छै रे छ्वारानजीक देख  I 
साडी मुलक मा छन भमक्यां  झाला विकट छन
पिंपरी कु तरसणा छौं , कन फुट  कपाळ ग्या I   
It may be said that Aswal inspired Garhwali poets to use satire in Ghazal format.
बलवंत सिंह रावत कि  गजल Ghazal by balvant rawat
जिकुडि कि खैरि कैमा लगाण 
तिसलु रै ग्याई तिसलु पराण  I   
क्वी नीच कैकु दुन्या मा दगड्या 
कैकु कजै ना कैकी कज्याण   I
The Ghazal maker uses two messages from one Ghazal
महावीर  बडोला कि गजल 
कुछ ना कुछ पैनी अबत पैनी नजर हूण चैन्द  भै 
जाड़  से नि रैठा मगर असर हूण चैन्द  भै  I  
Badola has tremendous potentiality to take Ghazal at height  
कुटज भारती कि गजल 
जगरी सृस्था वेद कु , बक्या बण्या ब्रह्मा जख 
मोंळ मादेव थै धुपाणी  सुंगाणा रै सदान  I   
Ghazals of Kutz Bharati ar satirical
चन्द्र सिंह राही कि गजल 
एक मनिख द्वी मुखडि देखि भळि   
असली क्वा नकली क्वा जरा पछ्याण धौं  I   
Rahi uses philosophical and inspirational aspects in his Ghazals
गिरीश पंत मृणाल कि गजल Ghazal by Girish pant ‘Mrinal’
खौरी का बारा , बिज़ी ग्याई कविता 
लेखिकपौढीक 'सेग्याई कविता 
Girish talks about poetry in this Ghazal
उमेश चन्द्र सिंह रावत कि गजल Ghazal by Umesh cahndra rawat
अब बदल्यलि मिं अपड़ी आँखी 
तयार आन्खुंन अब दुन्या थै  द्यखणु छौं  I 
आशीष सुंदरियाल  गजल Ghazal by Ashish Sundariyal
वीं  बारम क्या बतों सब्बु तैं 
जै  देखी खुद भूलिग्यों अफु तै  I 
गणेश खुगसाल 'गणिकि गजल Ghazal by Ganesh Khugsal ‘Gani’
वूंकी किरपान बैठों  किस्तिम 
बल वांफर पैलि हुयुं  छेद. I  
Most of Ghazals by Gani are satirical 
देवेश जोशी  गजल Ghazal by Devesh Joshi
कबि  छटैला   जाळा दगड्या 
कबि हमारा बि दिन आला दगड्या 
Devesh Joshi used various subjects in Ghazals

महेन्द्र सिँह राणा 'आजाद गजल Ghazal by Mahendra Rana 
मायाक समुण आज भी सिराणा रे ग्यायी
त्येरी माया मा बिज्यु ही रे ग्यायी!
Mahindra tries to bring eternal love into Garhwali Ghazals
  By reviewing recent trend and recent poetry collections, it may be said that Ghazals are becoming integral part of Garhwali poetry form.  The Garhwali Ghazal makers are using various social issues and philosophical aspects into Ghazals.  There is bright future of Ghazal form in Garhwali poetry.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 22/8/2012
Notes on Ghazals /Gazals in language; Ghazlas/Gazals in Garhwali language; Ghazlals/Gazals in Uttarakhandi language; Ghazals/Gazals in Mid Himalayan language; Ghazals/Gazals in Himalayan language; Ghazls/Gazals in North Indian regional language; Ghazals/Gazals in Indian regional language; Ghazals/Gazals in South Asian language; Ghazals/Gazals in Asian regional language; Ghazals/Gazals in English language; Ghazals/Gazals in Urdu language; Ghazals/Gazals in Hindi language; Ghazals/Gazals in Marathi  language to be continued…