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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Wednesday, June 8, 2016

Revolt in Malaun

 British Campaign for Capturing Himachal -7
            Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -290
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -820          
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

           Gurkha not only lost the huge army in Diuthal battle but Amarsingh Thapa lost respect from his armed forces and also lost the hope of defending the territory from British. Most of soldiers did not respect Amar Singh Thapa. Now, soldiers also lost faith in Kingdom (Premble).
    Nepal King already suggested Ranjor to have treaty with British by offering them Bhabhar, Tarai, Doon territories. However, Amar Singh Thapa did not abide the order of the King and continued enmity with the British.
     Amar Singh Thapa sent a letter to the Nepal King and British spies got that letter. British started spreading rumors due to that letter. The information was spread among Gurkha soldiers that Nepal King was ready for treaty with British but Amar Singh Thapa was in denial. Gurkha soldiers from Malaun started leaving Gurkha Army and started joining British army. Amar Singh tried to stop them by cruel methods but could not be successful in doing so.
         Amar Singh Thapa had two major non Gurkha friends- King of Bilaspur Mahachand and Prime Minister of Bushehr Dangi. Mahachand joined hand with British after British capturing Bilaspur.  Bazir Dangi was with Amar Singh from 1811. Dangi Bazir left Amar Singh Thapa and joined British camp just before the Diuthal battle. In bushehr, Bazir Tikkandas and Bazir Badaridas were organizing revolt against Gurkha. On 15thApril Bazir dangi reached to Bushehr for participating in revolution.
    Ochterlony captured all Garhis of Malaun. On 7th May, British army could reach with two 12 pond bronze Guns (loaded on elephants) Ochterlony was successful in sending at Malaun Hill. Amar Singh Thapa was suffering from food supply for his family and troop. He was of opinion that he should wait till rainy season start as British army would go to plains in rainy season. Amar Singh Thapa reduced food supply for his soldiers. Gurkha soldiers were hungry and started taking jungle leaves and roots. Gurkha soldiers started shouting- “Sardar! Either offer us food or let us go out to fight with British” . There was unrest allover Malaun Garhi. Amar Singh Thapa did not have alternatives.
     British army surrounded every corner of Malaun Garhi. It was just impossible for reaching food supply to Malaungarh. The higher Army commanders of Amar Singh Thapa requested Amar Singh Thapa either surrender or fight till death. Amar Singh Thapa asked them for waiting. Now, Gurkha Army commanders did not abide their superior’s order and went to British camp with around 1600 soldiers.
            Ranjor Singh at Jaithok was also trapped there.
            The higher commanders would be Gurkha but soldiers were mostly non Gurkha but either Himachali or Garhwali. British officers offered lot of tasty feast like food to Gurkha army soldiers and sweets too. Now, it was probably that Amar Singh Thapa would have had only 200-250 soldiers with him. On 8th May, 1815, Amar Singh Thapa sent a letter to Ochterlony about Ochterlony’s his desire. Ochterlony answered that Thapa should behave as defeated commander behaves. Till 10th May, Amar Singh Thapa did not reply. On morning of 10th May, British army started firing heavy guns on Malaungarhi. Next day, British soldiers took 18 Podn gun near Garhi. Now, Amar Singh Thapa was ready for surrender.
    On 11th May, Ramdas (the son of Amar Singh) met Ochterlony. Ramdas informed Ochterlony that his father was ready for surrendering.
        By 15th May 1815, there were many rounds of discussion between Amar Singh Thapa and Ochterlony for the conditions of surrendering.
        Now, British had rule over Kumaon, Garhwal and Governor General was not ready for soft conditions for Amar Singh Thapa. Governor General was not ready for offering same conditions to Amar Singh Thapa as offered to Bamshah in Kumaon. Governor General clearly instructed that not to let Gurkha take heavy weapons from forts captured by British from Gurkha army. Governor General instructed that let defeated Gurkha take small weaponries. Governor General accepted that British would offer loaders to Gurkha for taking necessary articles to Nepal. Governor General offered full authorities to Ochterlony for taking decision of surrender by Amar Singh Thapa.
           However, Ochterlony offered more liberal and respectful conditions for Amar Singh Thapa. He was of opinion that liberal conditions would be helpful in having treaty with Nepal Kingdom.

 (From writings of Atkinson, Preamble, Sanwal, Saxsena, Fraser, Princep, Maularam, Balchandra Sharma, Letter of Bamshah for Amar Singh Thapa etc) 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 7/6/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -821
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference           
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
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Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
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John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
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Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  History of Nepal, History of Doti Nepal, History of Nepalese/ Gurkha regime
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal