Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -294
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -824
By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)
After Malaun treaty on 15Tha May 1815, Governor General decided for capturing strategic places of Hill states.
When at the end of May, Gurkha vacated Himachal Garhis and started marching for Nepal, Ochterlony sent soldiers under Major Baldock for capturing Garhwal. Sudarshan Shah and Frazer were also marching with Baldock for Shrinagar.
On 28th May 1815, Company Secretary John Adam informed to Frazer, “the Governor Cabinet was proposing for taking charge of land from Kumaon Bhagirathi or Alaknanda. By doing so it would be clear demarcation of boundaries (between Tehri and British Kumaon-Garhwal) up to place o f confluence of Bhagirathi and Alaknanda (Dev Prayag). From Devprayag onwards to south would be under Doon valley. Barring Doon valley and west of Alaknanda the balance portion would be left for Sudarshan Shah.”
“Whatever River (Alaknanda or Bhagirathi) becomes demarcation point, it is necessary that most of boat ports, ports and bridges come under British. The important strategic places beyond the river should be taken under British. Shrinagar would be under British only.”
“Governor General got information (though can’t be reliable) that the people of Shrinagar are against handing over the rule to Sudarshan Shah. If they are not opposing they are not interested in Sudarshan Shah. If that is true, it is necessary for having police force in east of Alaknanda. “
“As far as Doon valley is concerned its importance is not for its fertility and forest wealth but it is important for defense point o f view. By keeping Doon valley under us we shall have rule over Dehradun, Kiyardoon, Sirmaur, Malaun, Sabathu that from Sutlej to Kali River”
British army marching for Shrinagar
In first week of June 1815, British soldiers under Major Baldock reached to Jogyana Athur via Dehradun, Nalapani, Chamuvakhal. Sudarshan Shah followed Baldock with his a few supporters, Sivram, Kashiram, Asadu Gusain and ten Panch (juries of village councils). Sudarshan Shah camped at Bamund.
Gurkha commander Subba Jagjit was there at Tori rope Way Bridge for stopping British army. A few Gurkha soldiers also reached Tori from Ravain. Gurkha soldiers fired on British soldiers. However, later on Gurkha soldiers escaped towards Shrinagar. British army camped at Tori and Sudarshan Shah camped at Athur. Quite a few -Ex officials (Mutsadi), village chiefs, workers, councilors, Rautelas (sons of King family members from their female Keepers) and people of Garhwal reached to Athur for meeting Sudarshan Shah (Archives of Tehri Kingdom).
Alternation of Nepal resident Bakhtawar Singh
Bamshah informed about British-Kumaon Treaty to Bakhtavar Singh Basnyet the Nepal Resident of Shrinagar. Through a letter, Bamshah requested /suggested Gurkha officials to reach Doti from Garhwal with their weapons and properties. Bamshah informed that it was sure that British rule would be there on Shrinagar. Bamshah suggested to Nepalese officials of Garhwal that after British reaching to Shrinagar, they should follow the instruction of British.
When Bakhtawar Singh Basnyet read the above letter, Bakhtawar Singh cried and spoke – “the high officers became traitors! Nobody is now patriotic” Bakhtawar Singh had an opinion that Bamshah handed over Kumaon by betrayal. Since, Amar Singh Thapa was in charge of Garhwal; Bakhtawar Singh Basnyet did not leave Shrinagar and stayed back in Shrinagar.
The representatives of Amar Singh Thapa those came to Shrinagar handed over the letter of Amar Singh to Bakhtawar Singh, informed about Malaun Treaty and made him understand that it was not possible for resisting the British power.
Major Baldock camped at Ranihat with his army. Sudarshan Shah reached on 17th Jeshtha , Vikrami Samvat 1872 ( June 1815) to Ranihat. Sudarshan Shah camped at ‘Bail Nagan’ rivulet bank. Baldock called Bakhtawar Singh Basnyet at Ranihat camp and informed him about Malaun treaty.
Loaders and carriers were provided to Gurkha officials and solders (Garhrajvanshkavya by Maularam). Gurkha showed their desire to see Sudarshan Shah as he was Boldan Badrinath too (Speaking God Badrinath). Major Baldock did not permit Gurkha for meeting the King. On 21stJeth VS 1872, Gurkha army officials, soldiers and civilians started marching for Nepal from Shrinagar. Those Gurkha were not interested for going back to Nepal they were pushed out from Shrinagar. Those Gurkha had to flee from Shrinagar.
(From writings of Atkinson, Preamble, , Saxsena, Fraser, Princep, Maularam, Balchandra Sharma, English pre mutiny records, Dehradun vol., 8; Saklani, Mutiny records Kumaon; Records of Tehri Kingdom etc)
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, firstname.lastname@example.org 11/6/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -825
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History of Nepal, History of Doti Nepal, History of Nepalese/ Gurkha regime
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal