History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 17
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -82
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -601
By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)
Satra Vyavstha in Shah Regime in Garhwal
In Shah Dynasty or before Shah Dynasty, there was tradition that various temples used offering Free Food and Prasad to pilgrims. Temples were given villages that by income from villages, temples would offer free food and arrange rituals smoothly. Before Gorkha Rule, villagers of seven villages nearby Shrinagar used to send grains to Shrinagar for pilgrims of Badrinath and Kedarnath etc.
Due to Shrinagar Court attitude, the small villages also used to offer land to nearby temples. As when Jaspur and Gweel (Dhangu, Pauri Garhwal) were united village, the Padhan or Sayana built a Shivala and offered land for the temple priest (Giri). Still the temple priest had that land in possession and priest family arranges rituals and arranges necessary materials for daily rituals.
Sadavrat Vyavstha in Gurkha/Gorkha Regime
Gurkha /Gorkha King named Free Food to Pilgrims as ‘Sadavart’.
In 1797, Gurkha/Gorkha King Ran Bahadur Shah offered Katoli Pargana for sending Grains for Pilgrims of Badrinath. The income (grains) of Katoli, Kumaon was used in offering food to pilgrims of Badrinath Temple. Grains from villages of Katoli, Kumaon was collected and dispatched to Piplakoti (Badrinath road, Garhwal). Rudravir Shah built a Dharmashala in Piplakoti where grains was stored and distributed to pilgrims (Atkinson).
In 1797, Ran Bahadur on behalf of his queen Kantimati Devi, offered villages of Mahruri Pargana of Kumaon for free food grains for pilgrims of Kedarnath. Rahul mentions about copper inscription about ordering of villages of Mehruri , Kumaon for arranging free grains for Kedarnath Pilgrims. The grains from villages of Mehruri Pargana were dispatched to Balpatan Chatti where Rudravir Shah and Bamshah Chautariya built a Dharmshala for such purpose.
In 1813, Nepal King Geervanyuddhvikram Shah on his son Indravikram Shah behalf offered villages of Dashauli Pargana for free grains to Badrinath Temple pilgrims. The grains was collected and kept in Joshimath.
In 1813, on behalf of second son Rajendravikram Shah, Nepal King Geervanyuddhvikram Shah offered villages of Painkhanda, Bamsu, Maikhanda for Kedarnath and Tungnath temples pilgrims.
Managing Sadavart Villages
The following villages were offered for providing free foods to Temple pilgrims in Gurkha/Gorkha regime-
------------------------------ -------Income *
Badrinath ---------Katauli, Kumaon------------------------
Badrinath -----------Dashauli , Garhwal-----------------------
Kedarnath -----------Mahruri , Kumaon ------------------------------
Kedarnath -------------Painkhanda, Bmasu, maikhanda Garhwal--------1126
Badrinath-Kedarnath -------Khola and seven villages---------------------
* In Farukhavadi Rupees
Kaji bahadur Bhandari and Bakshi Dasrath Khatri compiled detailed rules for Sadavart system and sent letter to respective Kamins. Kamins and Sayana were instructed to dispatch the materials /grains regularly for Sadavart in specific destination. Soldiers were kept far from those Sadavart villages.
There were instruction about quantity of grains for pilgrims and instruction for saving the grains in needy times.
Priests were also instructed for each ritual acts and food to pilgrims etc.
(for more details pl refer Dr Dabral’s book)
** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, firstname.lastname@example.org/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -602
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं , उत्तराखंड काइतिहास ; गढ़वाल , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; डोटी , पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं कागढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकारइतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का इतिहास ; नेपाल इतिहास
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal;
History: Gurkha/Gorkha Army Administration in Old Pauri Garhwal , History: Gurkha/Gorkha Army Administration in Old Tehri Garhwal, History: Gurkha/Gorkha Army Administration in Dehradun, Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Old Pauri Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Tehri Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Dehradun Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Kumaon; History: Land Revenue Reform in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Garhwal, History Taxation in Dehradun in Gurkah Period; Land Tax in Dehradun in Gurkha Rule ; History: Temple Land Administration in Gurkha/Gorkha Period in Garhwal, History: Free Food or Sadavrat System in Gurkha /Gorkha Regime in Garhwal