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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Tuesday, April 7, 2015

History: Temple Land Administration in Gurkha/Gorkha Period in Garhwal

History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 16
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -81    
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -600

                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

        Garhwal Kings used to donate land to specific temples after getting the desired results by praying the deity. Such land was called ‘Sankalp Bhumi ‘or ‘Vishnu Priti Bhumi /village’. Many times, Garhwal King used to take loan from Temple treasury and used to pledge state land to such temple. In case the kingdom was unable to return the loan, the villages became the property of temple as ‘Vishnu Preeti Land or Village’. Pradyuman Shah pledged land for getting laon for Rs. Fifty thousand from Badrinath Temple (Atkinson).  
             Initially, Gurkha/Gorkha administrators did not disturb the Vishnu Preeti Land Administration. In 1811, Kaji Bahadur Bhandari and Bakshi Dashrath  Khatri reformed the Vishnu Preeti Land administration. Gurkha/Gorkha called temple land as ‘Khalsa’ Land. Gurkha administration checked each temple land in details by auditing Copper inscriptions or other records. There was land with temple that those did not have any state instructions with temples. Gurkha /Gorkha administration sent officers to check with Bhalmanush (gentlemen or Elites) of the area. If the land was proper property of temple Gurkha /Gorkha administrators named such land as ‘Gunth or Gunthi’. Gurkha officers offered written order for such land after verification. Nepal King offered new copper inscriptions or order for old orders. The re are signatures of Kaji Bhandar, dashrath Khatri, Daftari Krishna Nnad Khanduri, Jamadar Harku Guru, havaldar Bagdar Khatri and those Bhalmanash who witnessed about the reality of land .If land did not have proper ownership that land was taken back from temple but with care as Gurkha /Gorkha were also afraid of religious curses from deities. The inscriptions were carved in Devnagari in Gurkha language e and seal of King.
       Objectives of Land Donation to Temples
 The copper inscription at Kamleshwar temple Shrinagar is witness that income from temple land should be used besides various rituals in temples or religious places the Temple priests shoul pray for the good health and prosperity of Nepal King. Instruction clearly stated that there should not be shortcomings in rituals.
            Gunthbhumi or Temple Land of Gangawar or Old Pauri or British Garhwal
    At the beginning of British rule Trail checked and audited the Gunth Bhumi or Temple and land and the description is as under in 1823 –
 Temple -------------Number of Gunth Villages---------Land Area in a Unit equal to twenty Nali
Badrinath -------------262----------------------------------------4780
Kedarnath -----------54-------------------------------------------755
Kamleshwar---------14-------------------------------------------232
Lakshminarayn ------5-------------------------------------------102
Raghunath------------8--------------------------------------------108
Tungnath-------------9---------------------------------------------138
Gopeshwar--------6-------------------------------------------------222
Miscellaneous Temples  ------165 ----------------------------1449
Barren Villages --------12 ---------------------------------------39
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Total--------------------535------------------------------------------7845
          Temple Land in  Old Tehri and Uttarkashi (Gangapar)
Chandravadani
Kamleshawr
Rajguru
Kilkileshwar
Sureshwari Devi
Raghunath (Devprayag)
Kapilmuni
Vishwanath /badahat
Ransi Devi /ranihat
Seem Nagraja
Mangalnath ka Than
Satyanath Bhairav
Gangamandir Gangotri
Das ka Math
                Temple Land in Dehradun

Dubhalwala village for Badrinath Temple
Prempur for Kedarnath Temple
Jakhan for Kedarnath Temple
Rishikesh and Tapovan – for Bharat Mandir
Gorakhpur- for Gorakhnath Temple
Jogiwala- for Gorakhnath Temple
                   Shri Guru Ram Rai Darbar Land
  Before or at the time Gorkha rule in Dehradun, Guru Ram Rai Darbar had following land-
Land donated by Fateh Shah – Khurbura, Rajpur, Chamasari
Land Donated by Pradyuman Shah- Dhamawala, Minyanwala, Panditwadi and Dhurjawala
Apart from the above land, Guru Ram Rai Darbar was offered six villages in Tehri Garhwal too.
 Gurkha snatched all land of Guru Ram Rai Darbar but in 1810, Land was returned. The sanad or state copper inscription by Balbhadra mentions six villages for Guru ram rai darbar.
               The agriculture produces of Dhamawala was used in daily Kadhah Prasad in Darbar. Every day eight Ana was the daily expense on Kadhah Prasad. On those days, wheat was Two and half man per rupee. The Kadah Prasad would be at least of one Man. That  means at least two hundred pilgrims and staff were there on daily basis.
 Doon was also being called Dehra.


** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com2/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -601
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं उत्तराखंड काइतिहास गढ़वाल उत्तराखंड का इतिहास डोटी पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं कागढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकारइतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का  इतिहास नेपाल इतिहास
Xx
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; 
History:  Gurkha/Gorkha Army Administration in Old Pauri Garhwal , History:  Gurkha/Gorkha Army Administration in Old Tehri Garhwal,     History:  Gurkha/Gorkha Army Administration in Dehradun, Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Old Pauri Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Tehri Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Dehradun Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Kumaon; History: Land Revenue Reform in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Garhwal, History Taxation in Dehradun in Gurkah Period; Land Tax in Dehradun in Gurkha Rule ; History:  Temple Land Administration in Gurkha/Gorkha Period in Garhwal