उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका की गतिविधियाँ ई-मेल पर

Enter your email address:

Delivered by FeedBurner

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Friday, April 17, 2015

Downfall in Cotton and Dress Material Industries in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule

History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 28
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -93    
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -612
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

             Before, Gurkha/Gorkha invaded Garhwal; there were hundreds of craft industries flourishing in Garhwal in Garhwali Shah Kings Period. However, Gurkha /Gorkha entry brought downfall in many village or rural industry drastically.
 Gurkha/Gorkha rulers did not encourage crafts in Garhwal. On the contrary, Gurkha/Gorkha levied new taxes.
   Harijan used to make utensils of various kind and Harijan and their works played important role in Garhwal societies. Gurkha/Gorkha levied new tax on Harijan works as ‘Majhari’ tax. Second another important craft of Garhwal was Dress making or dress making material production. Gurkha/Gorkha levied another tax on dress material makers and traders as ‘Tand ‘Tax.
      Most or all famers used to pasture Sheep with other domestic animals. Farmers used to get wool from Sheep. The wool was used for making dress materials and blanket. ‘Koli’ people used to weave wool and make woolen dresses for families. Bhotiya were famous for wool dress making. They used to export Woolen Dress to plains of India.
Maniyar of Bhagirathi Valley was famous for long and wide Blanket production.
  Dwarf Cotton was cultivated in Salan (South Garhwal) and Koli used to weave cotton for making dresses.
 People of upper Bhagirathi Valley used to cultivate Cotton too.
  However, Due to oppressive methods of Gurkha/Gorkha, farmers left villages and slowly cotton and woolen industry started falling drastically. Cotton industry became the matter of history after Gurkha invasion.
  East India Company established a hemp fiber production factory in Kahsipur (Udhamsingh Nagar). Company used to pay advances to famers for hemp fibers. Farmers of South Kumaon and South Garhwal started cultivating Hemp in abundance. Hemp Fiber was used in making ropes, bags, bed sheets, dress materials etc.
 Dr Dabral concluded that dress making industry and other craft industry fell drastically in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule.
** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com17/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -613
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं उत्तराखंड काइतिहास गढ़वाल उत्तराखंड का इतिहास डोटी पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं कागढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकारइतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का  इतिहास नेपाल इतिहास
Xx
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; 
Xx
History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Upper Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in South Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in North Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in South Garhwal, Uttarakhand History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Dehradun, Uttarakhand ; History Discussion on Forest Management in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History Discussion on Forest Management in Kumaon  in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History Analysis of water Resource Management and Crafts in Garhwal under Gurkha /Gorkha Rule; Downfall in Cotton and Dress Material Industries in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule