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Wednesday, April 15, 2015

Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkhas/Gorkhas in Uttarakhand

History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 25
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -90    
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -609
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

        Exploitation of Minerals and Mines by Gurkha/Gorkha in Uttarakhand
                     Minerals in Garhwal
     Garhwal had been fortunate for having important and exportable minerals. There have been perceptions that Garhwal was rich in gold and other metallic mines from Mahabharata period till British period.
 Captain Hearsay reported to East India Company in 1814, that Garhwal is prosperous for copper mines. He wrote about iron mines in Garhwal. Captain Hearsay informed the Company about availability of Pine Resin, Kanman Resin and Hemp in Garhwal.  Hearsay wrote that there were so many pines in Garhwal that those would be sufficient to make ships for whole of England.
  Gurkha retained the mining as was in Garhwal King Period and did not try for improving mineralogy in Garhwal. Gurkha/Gorkha never had faith on miners, contractors. Gurkha on the contrary, exploited contractors and miners by levying heavy duties. Therefore, many miners stopped mining works and mud was filled in many profitable mines too.
                     Copper Mines in Garhwal
    Garhwali King used to get annual income from copper mines for Rs 5000. There was income from Coining Coinage Factory and the annual income was about Rs 500.
    In 18o8, Gurkha/Gorkha administrators got only Rs 4000 from Dhanpur Mines of copper and lead from Pooki Sunar contractor (Asiatic Researches). There were two –three hundred mining workers busy whole year in mining.
    In north of Dhampur, in Nagpur, there was no taker for mining in 1808. It was needed huge investment to clear off the mud from mines of Nagpur and Gorkha were not conducive for business.
 There was only annual income for Gurkah rs 4000 in 1812 from mines of Kumaon and Garhwal. It was lesser than an annual income from Nagpur mines in 1803.
  There were no drastic changes in Iron mining as Iron was required for local utensil uses. Iron and copper of Garhwal was sold in Nazibabad Wholesale Market in 1812.
                          Gold Dust Collection  
  The Rivers of Garhwal were rich in Gold Dust. The Gold dust collectors used to be from Nahan Himachal. They used to collect Gold dust from bank of Alaknanda, Pindar, Vishnuganga Son etc. Those dust collectors used to wash bank sand and used to extract Gold dust from sand. Average person used to get Gold dust worth of Rs 4 per month. In 1819, there were fiteen people busy in Gold Dust collection and their average income was a quarter Tola of gold.
      Atkinson reported that there were following number of mines in Garhwal in Gurkha Period-
Iron Mines- 57
Copper Mines-44
Lead Mines- 5
 There were mines for Gypsum, Khadiya, Selkhadiya Soapstone, limestone etc.


** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com14/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -610
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti


Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं उत्तराखंड काइतिहास गढ़वाल उत्तराखंड का इतिहास डोटी पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं कागढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकारइतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का  इतिहास नेपाल इतिहास
Xx
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; 
Xx
History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Upper Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in South Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in North Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in South Garhwal, Uttarakhand History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Dehradun, Uttarakhand ;