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Wednesday, April 1, 2015

History: Second Land Revenue Reform in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Garhwal

History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 15
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -80    
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -599

                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                   ‘Bhari Bharai’ Letter
                Every Regional Gurkha Officer used to send a Fard or ‘Bhari Bharai’ record to Kamin under him. This ‘Bhari –Bharai’ was accounting of tax payable by Kamin for his region (Garkh). The latter used to be of Hill Paper and black ink was used. The stamp used to be on the paper than signature of officer.
                           Faults in Land Revenue System
1-Gurkha officers were deputed for one or two years in a territory. Therefore, the Gurkha/Gorkha officer was not attached emotionally to any territory and he used to attention on exploitation of people than the people’s need.
2- The tax was increased without any consideration of earning. This unwarned taxation created problem for people. When people were unable to pay tax, the Gurkha officer used to sell people in Rohilkhand or in Haridwar.
3- Officers used to loot people while returning to Nepal or at transfer.
   The above resulted for human less villages and low productivity.
       Mendbandhi: Second Land Revenue Reform in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Garhwal                 
               Kaji Bahadur Bhandari and Bakshi Dashrath Khatri headed the “The Second Land Revenue Reform commission’ (Mendbandhi’) in  1811-12. The tax was decided as per real situation of land in village.
The following important aspects were there for The Second Land Revenue Reform commission’ (Mendbandhi’)-
1-The overlapping of villages in other ‘Garkha’ or territory was stopped. There was clear demarcation of village borders.
2- Recording of Land- The land was recorded in aFard (Record book) for each owner by village numbers, name and land area. The record was sent to Nepal and was returned to each Kamin dully sealed by Nepal Court.  
The land was divided asp er productivity into five divisions-
Abbal –First Class
Dom/ Doyam- Second class
Sem- Third class
Chahar – Fourth class
Sukhvansi –Fifth Class
The tax was accounted as per fertility or productivity.
 The land tax was fixed – One per twenty Nali.
  Tax on Non fertile land was as follows-
First Year- No tax
Second Year- One fourth Tax
Third Year- Half Tax
Fourth Year and further- Full Tax
4- Villages were divided into for Dastur tax to Faujdar, Sayana, Kamin and other officers.
5- The tax payer could pay annual tax in five installments
6- According to Tara Datt Gairola, the crimes were divided into four categories and Slave selling was stopped.
                  Installment System for paying Tax
 People were unable to pay annual tax in one time. Therefore, a Kamin could pay taxes in five instalment. For example there is an official order to Kamin of Gujdu to pay in installments the annual tax of Rs 550 into following installments-
Rs.150 – Immediately in April (Baisakh)
Rs. 125- June-July (Ashadh)
Rs.125-September –October (Asuj)
Rs. 100 – January (Paudh)
Rs. 50- March (Chait)
                         Soldiers for Tax Collection
   In case, Kamin was unable to pay tax in time, Soldiers were deputed to collect tax. Kamin or the revenue criminal had to arrange Rice, Pulse, and Salt for the solider. Onion was to be offered but it was not compulsion (Gairola).
           Kaulkararpatta to Kamin stated that Kamin had to stop migration of people from villages. The Kamin and Sayan were asked to motivate people to do farming on barren land. Kamin were asked to call new owners for un farmed land for years.
                        Right to Sell Land    
   In the second land reform , Gurkha administration offered right to famers to sell their owned land. However, the right was limited to kabjedar or Thokdar or Thathwan and not to Khaikar, Sirtan, Kaini etc.
            Right of State on Land without Heirs
 Mari Right- If a land owner died without proper heir the government used to become owner of such Mari ko Bhumi or land of dead.
Rahta Right- If a person migrated from his village the State used to become owner as ‘Rahta Swami’.
Bahta Swami- If nobody was there to claim the right on any land that land was called Bahta or Floating land and state used to become the owner of such Bahta Bhumi.
Gurkha/Gorkha soldiers used to tease /terrorize the people in the name of Mari, Rahta and Bahta Bhumi.
                    Still Slaves were Sold
                  Nepal court sent order to Kamin and Sayan for stopping Slave selling custom. But there was no control on Gurkha officers who never stopped Slave Selling.
    Kamin were told not to charge interest on laon to farmers but there was no control on that reform too.
 Though, Nepal court wanted tax on fertile land but Gorkah soldiers levied tax as per their need and there was no relief for people. Initially, Kamin took loan to pay tax . However, the production was not such that they would pay the loan. When Gurkha had to run, Kamin , Thokdar were deeply indebted by loan.
           Neetighati Taxation
  Initially, Bhotiya of Neeti resisted Gurkha encroachment. Later on they had to accept Gurkha rule. Gurkha Officer Ranjor Singh Thapa decided annual tax for Rs. 7000 as Tax in Neeti valley. The tax was decided as per thinking of trade in Neeti. That amount was six times more than Garhwal Kingdom tax. Gurkha soldiers increased and took more than Rs 14000 as tax. Bhotiya could not bear the burden and many traders migrated elsewhere. In later stage the tax was reduced to Rs.4700 but still the tax was higher and unbearable.
                Land administration in Doon valley
     Kunwar Balbhadra was in charge of Dehradun till 1814. Balbhadra did not do anything to reform tax etc. Only starry trials were commenced  for increasing agriculture production where water was violable by digging canals. There are no records for order of Balbhadra for taxation etc in Dehradun. However, as compared to Garhwal, tax in Dehradun was lower than Garhwal region.

** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com1/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -600
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं उत्तराखंड काइतिहास गढ़वाल उत्तराखंड का इतिहास डोटी पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं कागढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकारइतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का  इतिहास नेपाल इतिहास
Xx
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; 
History:  Gurkha/Gorkha Army Administration in Old Pauri Garhwal , History:  Gurkha/Gorkha Army Administration in Old Tehri Garhwal,     History:  Gurkha/Gorkha Army Administration in Dehradun, Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Old Pauri Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Tehri Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Dehradun Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Kumaon; History: Land Revenue Reform in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Garhwal, History Taxation in Dehradun in Gurkah Period; Land Tax in Dehradun in Gurkha Rule