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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Tuesday, April 28, 2015

Official Language of Garhwal, Kumaon in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule over Uttarakhand

Disregard for Garhwali Scholars in Garhwal in Gurkha /Gorkha Period -6

History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 36
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -101    
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -620
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

              Before, Gurkha/Gorkha invaded Kumaon and then Garhwal, the official language of Chand Kingdom was Almodya Kumaon and Shrinagrya Garhwali was official Language of Garhwal Kingdom.
              After invasion of Gurkha/ Gorkha, Gurkha or Nepali Language became the official language of Uttarakhand and Gurkha territory of Himachal.
            Since, there is least differences among these three languages –Nepali, Kumaoni and Garhwali, there was no big problems of language interpretation among rulers and subjects.
              Administrators, Nepal court used to write orders or letters in Nepali language only. Court or Administrators used to start letter or copper inscription etc by Sanskrit. First line was used to be a Sanskrit language line of each order or inscription.
            At the end of government order or letter ‘Swadattam Pardattaam … ‘Sanskrit Shloka was mentioned compulsorily.
        There is no record of any book written in Garhwali, Kumaoni or Nepali in Uttarakhand in Gurkha Period.  
           Kumaoni, Garhwali or Himachalis used to use their own local dialectal languages for personal uses.

** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com25/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -621
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Himachal and Official Language; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Sirmour Himachal and Official Language; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Kangara Himachal and Official Language ; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Baghat Himachal and Official Language ; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Punar Himachal and Official Language; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Nahan Himachal and Official Language; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Himachal and Official Language;    
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand