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Monday, April 20, 2015

Downfall Metal Craft Works in Garhwal, Kumaon in Gurkha/Gorkha Period

History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 29
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -94    
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -613
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)


 Garhwal had been known for its copper and other metal mining and Metal Crafts (Iron Smith, Copper Smith, Brass Smith and Bronze Smith) had its importance in each Garhwal and Kumaon Village. Metal crafts were also source of export.
 Harijan (Lwar and Tamta) were main Metal Craftsmen of Garhwal and Kumaon. They used to produce the following main appliances with indigenous technology in Garhwali Shah period-
1-Metal House Appliances- Pots, Plates, Vessels, Glass, Dishes, etc
2-Metalic Agriculture Appliances- Sickle, Hoe, Axes
3-Metalic Defense Ammunitions-Bow, Arrow, Swords, Spear etc
4-Misclenious Appliances- Nakchundi, Hukka, Locks and Lech etc
 Gurkha were cruel in collecting taxes or financial penalties. Therefore, Garhwalis and Kumaunis were forced to sell their metal potteries etc to pay taxes etc. In case or of nonpayment, Gurkha soldiers used to snatch metal vessels and metal appliances from people.
 Due to downfall in mining also resulted in downfall in metal production in villages as raw materials were not available and people were also afraid of taking metal from one place to other places.
         There was drastic reduction in Metal works in villages. People and Metal Craft Producers were not sure about their life and hence the industry was in standstill situation.
 People were using mud vessels or stone vessels or Bamboo, Bheemal vessels.
       Downfall in Woodcrafts in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Garhwal, Kumaon
 Since, people were not sure of staying in their villages; they stopped building stable houses and Tibari (Drawing Room on first Floor) and by those reasons and other reasons woodwork development and production became stand still situation
      Downfall in Handcrafts in Garhwal and Kumaon in Gurkha Period

   There was steep downfall in Major Handcraft industries used for indigenous uses and export Purposes.
** Moorcroft, Travels in the Himalayan provinces
** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com18/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -614
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं उत्तराखंड काइतिहास गढ़वाल उत्तराखंड का इतिहास डोटी पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं कागढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकारइतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का  इतिहास नेपाल इतिहास
Xx
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; 
Xx
History : Downfall Metal Craft Works in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha rule; History : Downfall Metal Craft Works in Old Pauri Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha rule; History : Downfall Metal Craft Works in Old Tehri Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha rule; History : Downfall Metal Craft Works in Kumaun  in Gurkha/Gorkha rule; History : Downfall Metal Craft Works in Uttarakhand  in Gurkha/Gorkha rule; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Upper Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in South Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in North Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in South Garhwal, Uttarakhand History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Dehradun, Uttarakhand ; History Discussion on Forest Management in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History Discussion on Forest Management in Kumaon  in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History Analysis of water Resource Management and Crafts in Garhwal under Gurkha /Gorkha Rule; Downfall in Cotton and Dress Material Industries in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule